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CBSE Biology Syllabus Class 12

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus For Biology – Theory

The different units & chapters of CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus are as under:

Units

Chapters

Unit VI: Reproduction

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

Unit VII: Genetics and Evolution

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Chapter 7: Evolution

Unit VIII: Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Unit IX: Biotechnology and its Application

Chapter 11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Application

Unit X: Ecology and Environment

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

Chapter 14: Ecosystem

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

 

Let us now look into the detailed syllabus:

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus For Biology Unit 6 – Reproduction

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction – asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction – binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modesapomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus For Biology Unit 7 – Genetics And Evolution

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co- dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans -thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; genome and human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter 7: Evolution

Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus For Biology Unit 8 – Biology And Human Welfare

Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus For Biology Unit 9 – Biotechnology And Its Application

Chapter 11: Biotechnology

Principles and processes Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Application

Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, bio piracy and patents.

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus For Biology Unit 10 – Ecology And Environment

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter 14: Ecosystem Ecosystems

Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).