Matter – Its Nature and Behaviour
Organization in the Living World
Motion, Force, and Work
Food; Food Production
Matter – Nature, and Behaviour
Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics – shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.
Nature of Matter
Elements, compounds, and mixtures. Heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions.
Particle Nature, Basic Units
Atoms and molecules, Law of constant proportions, Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept: Relationship of the mole to a mass of the particles and numbers.
Structure of Atoms
Electrons, protons, and neutrons, valency, chemical formula of common compounds. Isotopes and Isobars.
Cell – Basic Unit of Life
The cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles, and cell inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes – basic structure, number.
Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism
Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants).
Diversity of plants and animals – basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories/groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates up to phyla and chordates up to classes).
Health and Diseases
Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria, and Protozoans) and their prevention; Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse Polio programmes
Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, derivation of equations of motion by the graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
Force and Newton’s Laws
Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and Reaction forces, Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and Acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of Momentum.
Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Freefall.
Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy; Elementary idea of Relative Density.
Work, energy, and power
Work done by a Force, Energy, power; Kinetic and Potential energy; Law of conservation of energy.
Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR. Structure of the Human Ear (Auditory aspect only).
Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. Air, water and soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in the ozone layer and the probable damages.
Bio-geochemical cycles in nature
Water, Oxygen, Carbon, and Nitrogen.
Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; Use of fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming.