Cell Structure and function DPP 2
DAILY PRACTICE PAPER (DPP) BY TEACHINGCARE.COM
- Which of the following organelles would only be found within a cell that was both eukaryotic and autotrophic?
- A) mitochondria
- B) ribosomes
- C) rough endoplasmic reticulum
- D) chloroplast
- After being formed by the ribosomes located on the endoplasmic reticulum, what is the next organelle to which a protein could be transported?
- A) mitochondria
- B) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
- C) Golgi apparatus
- D) nucleus
- Which is NOT true about the cell theory?
- A) Its various parts were described by Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow.
- B) It states that all organisms are composed of cells.
- C) It states that all cells come from preexisting cells.
- D) It states that bacteria and other small organisms can arise spontaneously.
- Which is NOT a reason for the small size of cells?
- A) Materials must be able to move quickly and efficiently through the cytoplasm.
- B) Nutrients and wastes must enter and leave the cell through the plasma membrane.
- C) The nucleus can only control a certain amount of cytoplasm.
- D) The increased number of organelles requires that eukaryotic cells be smaller than prokaryotic cells.
- Which statement is NOT true about bacteria?
- A) Their cell wall is made of a slime layer that is the same as in plant cell walls.
- B) Some are photosynthetic.
- C) Some are motile due to flagella.
- D) They are all prokaryotes.
- Which statement is NOT true about bacterial anatomy?
- A) Bacteria have pili which are used to transfer DNA to other bacteria
- B) The glycocalyx sheath is located inside the cell wall.
- C) There may be small rings of accessory DNA called plasmids.
- D) Bacteria may have fimbriae that help attach the bacteria to other structures.
- Most bacteria live in a solution that is hypotonic relative to the cytoplasm of the bacteria. The cell wall of a bacterium is a peptidoglycan polymer that is tightly cross-linked. This would therefore function to
- A) regulate the flow of most molecules into and out of the bacterial cell.
- B) provide a rigid wall that prevents the cell from swelling.
- C) provide a rigid wall that prevents the cell from shrinking.
- D) confirm a close relationship to plant cells that have a similar structure and live in hypotonic solutions.
- Which of the following is NOT offered as evidence in support of the endosymbiotic theory, the belief that a eukaryotic cell has evolved as a “committee” of prokaryotic cells?
- A) Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar in size and structure to some species of bacteria.
- B) The ribosomes of chloroplasts and mitochondria are similar to eubacteria.
- C) Mitochondria and chloroplasts can actively break away from eukaryotic cells and live on their own.
- D) Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA coding separate from the eukaryotic nucleus.
- The nucleus is NOT important as the site of
- A) DNA synthesis.
- B) RNA synthesis.
- C) synthesis of ribosomal subunits.
- D) protein synthesis.
- Which is a true statement about ribosomes?
- A) Ribosomes contain DNA and protein.
- B) Ribosomes are active in carbohydrate synthesis.
- C) Ribosomal subunits leave the nucleus after being formed by the nucleolus.
- D) Polyribosomes are the subunits of ribosomes.
- Which of these is NOT part of the endomembrane system of the cell?
- A) mitochondria
- B) endoplasmic reticulum
- C) lysosomes
- D) Golgi complex
- Lysosomes are produced by the
- D) Golgi apparatus.
- Membrane-bounded vesicles that contain enzymes for oxidizing small organic molecules with the formation of hydrogen peroxide are
- B) peroxisomes
- Large membranous sacs that are more prevalent in plant cells and some protozoa than in animal cells are called
- Which is NOT a characteristic of chloroplasts?
- A) Chlorophylls are found in the fluid stroma of the chloroplast.
- B) Chlorophyll absorbs solar energy that is used to form chemical bonds.
- C) A membrane inside a chloroplast is called a thylakoid.
- D) Stacks called grana are linked by membranous connections.
- Which is NOT a characteristic of mitochondria?
- A) A mitochondrion has two membranes.
- B) Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration.
- C) Mitochondria are found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
- D) Mitochondria contain DNA and ribosomes.
- E) The inner space of the mitochondrion contains a fluid matrix.
- Which of the following is NOT true concerning cytoskeletal elements?
- A) Cilia are small extensions of membrane-surrounded microtubules.
- B) Microtubules are made up of a globular protein called tubulin.
- C) Intermediate filaments compose flagella
- D) Flagella have a 9 + 2 pattern of microtubule structure.
- E) Basal bodies are located at the base of cilia and flagella.
- Actin filaments are
- A) also known as microtubules.
- B) able to assemble and disassemble from component proteins.
- C) found in the center of flagella and cilia.
- D) intermediate in size between microtubules and microfilaments.
- E) made of different kinds of components in different tissues.
- The cells that line our respiratory tract, and one-celled paramecia both have these short hair-like projections.
- A) flagella
- B) microfilaments
- C) centrioles
- D) cilia
- E) pili
- From your knowledge of the size of cell components and the process of centrifugation, what is the order (from first to last) that the nucleus and organelles will be extracted?
- A) ribosomes-mitochondria and chloroplasts-nucleus-soluble cytoplasm
- B) nucleus-mitochondria and chloroplasts-ribosomes-soluble cytoplasm
- C) nucleus-mitochondria and chloroplasts-soluble cytoplasm-ribosomes
- D) mitochondria and chloroplasts-nucleus-soluble cytoplasm-ribosomes
- E) soluble cytoplasm-ribosomes-mitochondria and chloroplasts-nucleus
- To best preserve the enzymes of a cell when we cut a cell apart in a blender to separate the organelles, the solution should be
- A) warm and acidic.
- B) warm and basic.
- C) cold and neutral.
- D) cold and acidic
- E) The temperature and pH does not matter.
- Prokaryotes are characterized by all of the following structures EXCEPT
- A) a nucleoid.
- B) inclusion bodies.
- E) ribosomes
- All of the following are parts of plant cells EXCEPT
- D) cell walls.
- E) vacuoles
- The organelle of the endomembrane system associated with the sorting of lipids and proteins for various cellular functions are
- A) rough endoplasmic reticula.
- D) Golgi apparati.
- E) None of these
- Which of the following gives rise to both lysosomes and vesicles?
- A) rough endoplasmic reticula
- B) mitochondria
- C) Golgi apparati
- D) ribosomes
- E) nucleus
- The plant cell’s central vacuole
- A) provides the plant cell with support.
- B) stores nutrients and cellular waste products.
- C) is a reservoir for water.
- D) occupies a large area of the cell
- E) All choices are correct
- Of the following, which is NOT associated with the mitochondria?
- A) ATP productions
- B) cristae
- C) stroma
- D) matrix
- E) All of these are associated with the mitochondria
Use the following to answer questions 44-48:
- Which of the labeled organelles or structures is not found in animal cells?
- Which organelle is the golgi apparatus?
- Which organelle houses the cellular DNA?
- Which organelle or structure is responsible for cellular respiration?
- Which organelle is the site of protein synthesis?
- It took a great deal of time on a geological scale for organisms to evolve from the prokaryotic cellular level to eukaryotes, but once this occurred evolution of eukaryotes proceeded very rapidly.
- Discuss the theories of how eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes. Include the concept of endosymbiosis and the evidence of endosymbiosis.
- Discuss possible reasons why eukaryotes were able to diversify into so many different forms once they evolved.
- Cell membrane of prokaryotes may have invaginated to surround nucleus thus producing a membrane-bound nucleus. Invagination may also have produced an endomembrane system. Endosymbiosis accounts for such organelles as mitochodria and chloroplasts. Answer should include explanation of the theory and evidence such as presence of DNA in mitochondria and chloroplasts, double membranes, size, etc.
- Greater efficiency of function due to compartmentalizing organelles. Allowed for larger cells and specialization among cells, which could in turn lead to multicellularity. Mitochondria allow for aerobic respiration which provides greater energy to accommodate higher energy demands of eukaryotic cells and multicellular organisms.
- The cell is the structural and functional unit of life. This means that everything a living organism needs to do to maintain life is done at the cellular level. List the major characteristics of life and describe the cell organelle or cell process that is responsible for each characteristic.
Organization: Membranes (plasma, nuclear, vesicles) help to compartmentalize cell processes and materials.
Homeostasis: Cell membrane is selectively permeable to allow materials in and out as needed to maintain balance
Adaptation/Evolution: DNA in nucleus codes for proteins, proteins cause traits. If DNA changes, proteins change and organisms change.
Reproduction: Cells divide to make more cells, DNA in nucleus makes copies of itself for new cells.
Energy utilization: Chloroplasts in plants turn solar energy to chemical energy. Mitochondria in all eukaryotes convert chemical energy into ATP
Many other possible answers: e.g. ribosomes make protein for enzymes necessary for all life processes (respiration, photosynthesis, cell division) or proteins for cell membrane for homeostasis.
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