Chapter 15 Morphology of Flowering Plants Part 2 by Teaching Care online coaching classes

Chapter 15 Morphology of Flowering Plants Part 2 by Teaching Care online coaching classes


Systematic position

Division         :        Angiospermae

Class               :        Monocotyledonae

Series             :        Coronarieae

Order             :        Liliales

Family            :        Liliaceae

Habit : Usually perennial herbs growing by means of rhizomes (e.g., Aloe, Polygonatum), bulbs (e.g., Lilium, Allium) and corms (e.g., Colchicum). Some herbs are annual (e.g., Asphodelus). Shrubs occur in Aloe, Agave, Yucca (Dagger plants, Adam’s Needle), Dracaena (Dragon plant), and Ruscus (Butcher’s Broom). They mostly grow in arid areas and are hence xerophytic (e.g., Aloe, Yucca). Xanthorrhoea of Australia is tree-like. Climbers are seen in Smilax, Gloriosa and species of Asparagus.

Root : Adventitious, fibrous or tuberous (e.g., Asparagus).

Stem : Erect or climbing as Smilex, branched or unbranched, herbaceous, phylloclade as Ruscus. Cladode as

Asparagus, Bulb as Allium cepa.

Leaves : Radical or cauline and ramal, cauline and ramal show various types of phyllotaxy (alternate, opposite or whorled), exstipulate, stipulate in Smilax where the stipules are prolonged into tendrils, sessile or petiolate with sheathing leaf bases, venation parallel but reticulate in Smilax, leaves may be scaly, leathery, fleshy or modified into spines (e.g., Asparagus), leaf apex is tendrillar in Gloriosa. The leaves of Phormium tenax (New Zealand Hemp) are 3 metres long and 10 cm broad.

Inflorescence : Recemose, sometimes solitary (e.g., Tulipa, Gloriosa) or umbellate condensed cymes (umbel cyme), e.g., Onion. In several cases the inflorescence possesses a leafless peduncle called scape.

Flower : Bracteate or ebracteate, pedicellate, regular, actinomorphic, zygomorphic in a few cases (e.g., Gilliesia), complete or incomplete, perfect, unisexual in Smilax and Ruscus, hypogynous, generally pentacyclic, trimerous (rarely bimerous or tetramerous). Accessory floral organs undifferentiated and collectively called perianth.

Parianth : Tepals 6, in two whorls of 3 each, free or fused, sepaloid or petaloid, scarious or membranous, aestivation valvate or imbricate, distinguished into calyx and corolla in Trillium, inferior.

Androecium : Stamens 6 (3 in Ruscus, 9–12 in Tofieldia), free (polyandrous) or monadelphous (e.g., Ruscus),


arranged in two whorls, antiphyllous (antitepalous), may be epiphyllous (or epitepalous), anthers fixed variously (basifixed, dorsifixed, versatile), dehiscence longitudinal or by pores, inferior.

Gynoecium : Tricarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, trilocular with 2- many ovules in each locules, placentation axile, rarely parietal, styles united or separate, stigma free or fused, trilobed.

Fruit : A capsule (e.g., Asphodelus, Gloriosa) or berry (e.g., Asparagus).

Seed : Endospermic and monocotyledonous.

Mother axis


Floral formula :

Å ♂+

P3+ 3 or

(3+ 3)

A3+ 3


Fig : Floral diagram of liliaceae (Allium cepa)


 Cruciferae (Brassicaceae).

Systematic position

Division         :        Angiospermae

Class               :        Dicotyledonae

Subclass         :        Polypetalae

Series             :        Thalamiflorae

Order             :        Parietales

Family            :        Cruciferae (Brassicaceae)

Habit : Annual, biennial or perennial herbs. Farsetia jacquemontii is an undershrub. The plants possess pungent juice having sulphur-containing glucosides.

Root : Tap root alongwith hypocotyl is swollen in Radish (Raphanus sativus) and Turnip (Brassica rapa).

Stem : Erect, cylindrical, hairy or glabrous, herbaceous or rarely woody. It is reduced in the vegetative phase in Radish and Turnip. The stem is swollen in Kohlarabi (Knol-Kohl = Ganthgobi, Brassica, oleracea var. Gonglylodes). Axillary buds enlarged in Brussel’s Sprouts ( = Button gobhi) or Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera. Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cabbage) has the largest terminal bud.

Leaves : Radical, cauline and ramal, alternate or sub-opposite but forming rosettes when radical, exstipulate with sheathing leaf base, sessile simple or rarely compound (e.g., Nasturium officinale), hairy. Bulbils occur in the leaf axils of Dentaria bulbifera and on the leaves of Cardamine pratensis.

Inflorescence : Flowers are usually arranged in racemose racemes. Occasionally they are in corymbs (candtuft).

Flower : Ebracteate or rarely bracteate (e.g., Rorippa montana), pedicellate, complete, perfect, regular, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic (e.g., Iberis, Teesdalia), tetramerous or bimerous, hypogynous (perigynous in Lepidium), cyclic, cruciform.

Calyx : Sepals 4, polysepalous, aestivation imbricate, generally arranged in two whorls, outer of antero- posterior sepals and inner of lateral sepals, lateral sepals generally saccate or pouched at the base, green or petaloid, inferior.

Corolla : Petals 4, polypetalous, arranged in one whorl and alternate with sepals, often with long claws and spread out in the form of a Greek cross. This arrangement of petals which is characteristic of the family is known as the cruciform arrangement and corolla is described as cruciform corolla, valvate aestivation. Petals reduced or absent in Lepidium and Rorippa.

Androecium : Stamens 6, (four in Cardamine hirsuta, two in Coronopus didymus, 16 in Megacarpaea), free (polyandrous), tetradynamous, arranged in two whorls, outer of two short lateral

stamens while the inner whorl is made up of 4 long stamens arranged in two median pairs, anthers basifixed or dorsifixed, dehiscence longitudinal, inferior. Green nectaries are often associated with the bases of stamens.

Gynoecium : Bicarpellary (tricarpellary in species of Lepidium, tetracarpellary in Tetrapoma and Tropidocarpum), syncarpous, carpels placed transversely, ovary superior, placentation parietal, ovary bilocular due to the presence of a false septum called replum, style short, stigma capitate, simple or lobed.

Fruit : Siliqua of silicula, lomentaceous siliqua occurs in radish.


Seed : Non-endospermic, often oily.

Fig : Floral diagram of cruciferae (Brassica campesteris)


Floral formula : Ebr Å ♂+   K 2+ 2  C´4   A2+ 4  G (2)


Systematic position

Division         :        Angiospermae

Class               :        Dicotyledonae

Subclass         :        Polypetalae

Series             :        Calyciflorae

Order             :        Rosales

Family            :        Leguminosae

Habit : Annual or biennial, herb, shrub or tree.

Root : Tap root system.

Stem : Erect or creeping, solid or weak.

Leaf : Alternate or whorled, stipulate, petiolate, simple or usually compound, reticulate venation. On the basis of inflorescence and flower characters, this family divided in to 3 subfamilies :

Family – Leguminosae




Papilionatae (Fabaceae)

  1. Flowers – very zygomorphic
  2. Corolla – descending imbricate
  3. Stamens – diadelphous


  1. Flowers – more or less zygomorphic
  2. Corolla – ascending imbricate
  3. Some staminodes


  1. Flowers – actinomorphic
  2. Valvate, petals free or connate
  3. Stamens – usually indefinite


Subfamily – Papilionatae (Fabaceae)

Inflorescence : Racemose or solitory axillary.

Flower : Bracteate or ebracteate rarely bracteolate (e.g., Arachis), pedicellate or sessile, complete, irregular, zygomorphic, perigynous or occasionally hypogynous, pentamerous.

Calyx : Sepals 5, gamosepalous, usually companulate, lobe unequal, rarely tubular (e.g, Cyamopsis), odd sepal anterior, may be persistent inferior.

Corolla : Petals 5, polypetalous, papilionaceous, descending imbricate aestivation, one posterior long standered, two lateral short wings, two anterior petals jointed to each other

forming keel.

Androecium : Stamens 10, usually diadelphous (9+1 in Lathyrus, 5+5 in Aeschynomene) or monadelphous (9 in Dalbergia, 10 in Arachis and Erythrina indica), rarely free (e.g., Sophora), nectar gland often present on the inner bases of filaments, anther lobes bilocular, dorsifixed, introse.

Gynoecium : Monocarpellary, ovary superior, unilocular with marginal placentation ovary covered by staminal tube, style bent, stigma simple or capitate.

Fig : Floral diagram of subfamily papilionatae (Pisum sativum)



Fruit : Legume or lomentum.


Floral formula : Br % +

K5 C1+2+(2) A1+(9 ) G1


Subfamily – Caesalpinoideae

Inflorescence : Raceme, umbel or a solitary flower.

Flower : Bracteate or ebracteate, pedicellate, hermaphrodite, complete, zygomorphic, hypogynous.

Calyx : Sepals 5, polysepalous, imbricate aestivation.

Corolla : Petals 5, polypetalous, ascending imbricate aestivation.

Androecium : 10 stamens, or staminodes are found as in Cassia, free filaments of unequal size, anther lobes bilocular, introrse, versatile.

Gynoecium   :    Monocarpellary,    unilocular,   ovary   superior, marginal placentation, stigma capitate.

Fruit : Legume.

Floral formula :  % ♂+  K5 C5  A1+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 3 (staminodes) or 7 + 3 (staminodes) G1



Fig : Floral diagram of subfamily caesalpinoidae (Cassia fistula)




Subfamily – Mimosoideae

Inflorescence : Head or capitulum or spike, flowers arranged in acropetal succession.

Flower   :    Bracteate   or   ebracteate,    sessile, hermaphrodite,    complete  actinomorphic,    hypogynous, pentamerous.

Calyx : 5 sepals (4 in Mimosa) gamosepalous, connate at the base, valvate aestivation, rarely imbricate (e.g.,


Corolla : 5 petals (4 in Mimosa) gamopetalous or polypetalous, membranous, valvate aestivation.

Androecium : In most of the members, stamens are indefinite and polyandrous. However, there are only 4 stamens in Mimosa pudica and 10 each in Prosopis and Dichrostachys.

Filaments are long, usually connate at the base, sometimes they are coloured and gland dotted. Anthers are dithecous and introrse.

Gynoecium : Monocarpellary, unilocular, ovary superior, style long, cylindrical, stigma single and capitate, marginal placentation.

Fruit : Lomentum.


Floral formula :

Br or Ebr Å ♂+  K(5) C(5)  or

5  A¥ G1


Fig : Floral diagram of subfamily mimosoidae (Mimosa pudica)




Systematic position

Division         :        Angiospermae

Class               :        Dicotyledonae Subclass         :        Gamopetalae Series             :        Bicarpellatae

Order             :        Polimoniales

Family            :        Solanaceae

Habit : Mostly herbs (Petunia, Solanum nigrum, Nicotiana, Withania), shrubs, a few trees (Solanum grandiflorum or potato tree) or climbers (Solanum jasminoides or potato vine, Solanum dulcamara).

Root : Branched tap root.

Stem : Usually the stem is erect, solid, cylindrical and branched. Occasionally, it is spinous (Solanum xanthocarpum, Datura stramonium, Lycium). In potato (Solanum tuberosum) underground stem is modified in to tubers.

Leaves : Cauline, ramal, exstipulate petiolate or sessile, alternate, sometimes opposite, simple, entire, pinnatisect in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). Venation unicostate reticulate, variegated in Solanum jasminoides.

Inflorescence : Axillary or extra axillary cyme. Solitary axillary in Physalis and Pentunia. Sub-sessile umbellate cyme in Withania somnifera, solitary in Datura.

Flower : Bracteate or ebracteate, pedicillate, complete, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic (e.g., Salpiglosis, schizanthus), bisexual, rarely unisexual (e.g., Withania coagulans) pentamerous, hypogynous.

Calyx : Sepals 5, gamosepalous, tubular or campanulate, persistent, accrecent (enlarging in fruit, e.g., Physalis, Withania), Valvate or imbricate, green or coloured, hairy.

Corolla : Petals 5, gamopetalous, tubular or infundibuliform, valvate, twisted in Datura, bilabiate in

Schizanthus, scale or hair like outgrowth may arise from the throat of the corolla tube.

Androecium : Stamens 5, rarely 4 (e.g., Salpiglosis) or 2 (e.g., Schizanthus), free, epipetalous, polyandrous alternate to petals, filament inserted deep in the corolla tube, anthers dithecous, usually basifixed or dorsifixed, introrse.

Gynoecium : Bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, carpels placed obliquely in diagonal plane, generally bilocular (2-4 locular in tomato, 4-locular in Datura due to false septa), placentation axile, ovules many in each locules, placentae swollen, a nectariferous disc or lobes may be present, stigma capitate or lobed.



Fig : Floral formula of solanaceae (Solanum nigrum)





Fruit : A many seeded berry (e.g. Tomato) or capsule (e.g, Datura).

Seed : Endospermic with straight or curved embryo.


Floral formula :

Br Å ♂+

K(5 ) C(5 ) A(5 ) G (2)



Systematic position

Division         :        Angiospermae

Class               :        Dicotyledonae

Subclass         :        Polypetalae

Series             :        Thalamiflorae

Order             :        Malvales

Family            :        Malvaceae

Habit : Plants are annual herbs (e.g., Malva, Sida, Malvastrum, Urena) shrubs (e.g., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, H. mutabilis) or rarely trees (e.g., Kydia, Bombax).

Root : Branched tap root.

Stem : Stem is erect, aerial, herbaceous or woody, usually solid, cylindrical and branched. Herbaceous portion of the stem is covered with stellate and scaly hairs; the woody part is fibrous. Plants usually have some mucilaginous substance.

Leaves : Leaves are alternate and stipulate (stipules 2, free lateral and often Caducous). They are simple and petiolate, lamina is sometimes palmately lobed (e.g., Gossypium) or digitate (e.g., Bombax). Venation is multicostate reticulate.

Inflorescence : Usually the flowers are solitary axillary or terminal. Occasionally, they are in panicle raceme (e.g., Kydia).

Flowers : Flowers are bracteate, bracteolate, actinomorphic, bisexual (unisexual in Kydia), pentamerous and hypogynous. The number of bracteoles varies from 3 to many, they form a whorl of epicalyx below the calyx. Sometimes the epicalyx is absent (e.g., Sida and Abutilon).

Calyx : Sepals 5, gamosepalous (connate at the base but free at the tip) and show valvate aestivation. Usually epicalyx present.

Corolla : Petals 5, polypetalous (slightly fused at the base), usually adnate at the base to the staminal tube.

They show twisted or imbricate aestivation.

Androecium : It has indefinite stamens. They are monadelphous. Filaments of the stamens are united to form a long staminal tube or staminal column which encloses the style. Basal part of the staminal tube is fused with the petals; thus stamens are epipetalous. Anthers are monothecous, reniform, transversely attached to the filament and extrorse. In Bombax stamens are polyadelphaous.

Gynoecium : It is 2 to many carpellary. It is bicarpellary in Plagianthus, tricarpellary in Kydia, pentacarpellary in Hibiscus and Sida, ten carpellary in Althaea rosea and 15 – 20 carpellary in Abutilon indicum. All the carpels are fused (syncarpous) to form a single ovary. Ovary is superior, multilocular with one or more ovules in each chamber. The placentation is axile.

Style is usually long and enclosed in the staminal tube. Stigmas are as many as the number of carpels or double the number of carpels.


Fig : Floral diagram of malvaceae (Hibiscus rosa sinensis)





Fruit : Fruit is a loculicidal capsule (e.g., Gossypium, Hibiscus), schizocarpic capsule (e.g., Abutilon, Sida) or a berry (e.g., Malvastrum).

Seed : Seeds are albuminous. In Gossypium the seeds are pubescent, i.e., covered with hairs.


Floral formula :

Br Å ♂+   Epia  K(5 ) C5  A(a ) G(5-a )



Systematic position

Division         :        Angiospermae

Class               :        Dicotyledonae

Subclass         :        Polypetalae

Series             :        Calyciflorae

Order             :        Passiflorales

Family            :        Cucurbitaceae

Habit : These are trailing or climbing annuals or perennial herbs. They climb by means of simple or branched tendrils which are extra – axillary in position. Rarely they are shrubs (e.g., Acanthosicyos) or trees (e.g., Dendrosicyos).

Stem : Herbaceous, branched, pentangular, fistular, tendrils in axil of leaf or opposite to leaves. The morphological nature of tendril is of dispute.

Leaves : Leaves are cauline and ramal. They are alternate, exstipulate, simple, petiolate and cordate (e.g., Cucurbita maxima, Coccinia grandis) or deeply palmately lobed (e.g., Luffa cylindrica, Cyclanthera pedata). Venation is reticulate multicostate.

Inflorescence : Flowers are either solitary axillary (e.g., Cucurbita, Coccinia) or in cymose clusters (e.g.,

Cucumis, male flowers of Luffa).

Most of the members of the Cucurbitaceae are monoecious but a few are dioecious (e.g., Coccinia cordifolia, Trichosanthes dioica).

Flower : Flowers are bracteate or ebracteate, pedicellate, unisexual, actinomorphic, pentamerous and epigynous. Schizopepon is the only exception which has bisexual flowers.

Male flower

Calyx : Sepals 5, gamosepalous, quincuncial aestivation.

Corolla : Petals 5, gamopetalous, campanulate or rotate, imbricate or valvate aestivation.

Androecium : Stamens 5, polyandrous as in Fevillea, or (2)+(2)+1 as in Momordica, anthers twisted, alternate to petals, sometimes epipetalous, dehiscence longitudinal.

Gynoecium : Absent.

Female flower

Calyx : Similar to male flower.

Corolla : Similar to male flower.

Androecium : Absent but sometimes 2, 3, 5 staminodes present.

Gynoecium        :       Tricarpellary,     syncarpous, unilocular, ovary inferior, numerous ovules, parietal




7            (A)                                                          (B)

Fig : Floral diagram of cucurbitaceae (Cucurbita maxima / Kaddu)

  • Floral diagram of male flower (B) Floral diagram of female flower





placentation but looks as axile placentation, style is simple, stigma 3.

Fruit : Pepo (variation of berry).

Seeds : Exalbuminous.


Male flower :

Br or Ebr Å ♂ K(5 ) C(5 ) A(2)+(2)+1 G0


Female flower :

Br or Ebr Å ♀ K(5 ) C(5 ) A0 G(3)


 Compositae (Asteraceae).

Systematic position

Division         :        Angiospermae

Class               :        Dicotyledonae Subclass         :        Gamopetalae Series             :        Inferae

Order             :        Asterales

Family            :        Compositae (Asteraceae)

(Largest family among the angiosperms)

Habit : Most of the plants are annual herbs (e.g., Chrysanthemum, Lactuca, Calendula, Helianthus, Tagetes). A few are shrubs (e.g., Artemisia, Pluchea lanceolata) or rarely trees (e.g., Vernonia arborea, Wilkesia, Leucomeris). Milkamia cordata is a twiner.

Root : Usually there is a tap root, but in Dahlia and Taraxacum officinale fasciculated roots are present.

Stem : Stem is usually herbaceous, erect, branched, solid, fibrous and sometimes with milky latex. In Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) the stem is underground and tuberous. In Baccharis, it is winged like a leaf.

Leaves : Leaves are mostly alternate and occasionally opposite (e.g., Helianthus) or whorled (e.g., Eupatorium, Zinnia verticillata). They are exstipulate, petiolate, simple, pinnately or palmately lobed or compound (e.g., Dahlia, Cosmos). Venation is reticulate.

Inflorescence : Inflorescence is capitulum or head with an involucre of bracts at its base. The number of flowers in each inflorescence varies from 1000 (in large flowers of Helianthus) to 1 (in Echinops). Peduncle flat on which florets are attached.

Flower : Epigynous, usually pentamerous with reduction in certain whorls, hermaphrodite or unisexual complete or incomplete, tubular (actinomorphic) or ligulate (zygomorphic), bracteate or ebracteate.

  • Ray florets : Towards periphery of head, sessile bracteate, pistillate or neutral, zygomorphic, ligulate,

Calyx : Absent or hairy pappus or scaly, persistant. Corolla : Petals 5, gamopetalous, ligulate, strap shaped. Androecium : Absent.


Gynoecium : Bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary inferior, unilocular, one ovule in each locule, basal placentation, style simple narrow, stigma branched.

  • Disc florets : In the centre of head, bracteate, bisexual, actinomorphic, tubular, pentamerous,

Calyx : Absent or pappus.

Corolla : Petals 5, gamopetalous, tubular.

Androecium : 2 stamens, epipetalous, syngenesious, dithecous, bilobed, introrse, filament free.

Gynoecium : Bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary inferior, unilocular, single ovule in the locule, basal placentation, style single, short, stigma bifid.

  • Neutral florets : Androecium and gynoecium both are Remaining structures are similar to ray floret and disc florets.

Fruit : Cypsella. Seed : Exalbuminous. Floral formula :


Ray florets : Disc florets :

Br.% ♀ K0 or P C(5 ) A0 G(2) Br.% or Å +♂ K0  or P C(5 )

A(3) G(2)

  • (B)

Fig : Floral diagram of compositae (Helianthus annuus)

(A) Ray floret, (B) Disc floret


Neutral florets :