Chapter 2 Animal Kingdom Part 2 (Phylum Porifera and Coelenterata, Ctenophora) by TEACHING CARE online tuition and coaching classes
Animal Kingdom Part 2
(Phylum Porifera, Coelenterata and Ctenophora)
Phylum Porifera / Parazoa / Sponges:
The porifera are the lowest multicellular animals (metazoans) without definite true tissues. In other words, they have “cellular level” of body organization. The word “Porifera”means pore bearers (Gr., porus = pore; ferre = to bear); They have numerous minute pores, called ostia, in their body wall through which a continuous current of outside water is taken into the body. 5,000 species are
- All porifera are aquatic, sedentary/sessile, asymmetrical or radially symmetrical They are the first multicellular organisms.
- The sponge are diploblastic. Ectoderm is composed of pinachocyte and endoderm is composed of Both these layers are called pinachoderm and choandoderm respectively.
- The body is perforated by numerous minute pores called ostia.
- The ostia open into a large central cavity called spongocoel.
- The spongocoel opens to the outside by a large opening called
- The most characteristic feature of this phylum is the presence of a an inter-communicating system of cavities known as canal system.
- They have an endoskeleton of calcareous spicules or silicious spicules or spongin fibres or sometimes
- Excretion and respiration takes place by diffusion through general body
- They have a great power of
- Reproduction takes place both by asexual and sexual methods. The asexual reproductive bodies are called gemmules
- Development is indirect or The common larval are
parenchymula, amphiblastula, etc.
Diagram of a partially sectioned generalized sponge
Types of Canal System in sponges:
- Ascon type- in Leucosolenia
Ascon type canal system
- Sycon type- eg. in Sycon(=Scypha). It is formed by folding of body Choanocytes are limited only to flagellated canals
Sycon type canal system
- Leucon type- eg. in class Demospongiae. It is formed by further folding of flagellated canals of the sycon type. Choanocytes are limited to flagellated chambers
Leucon type canal system
- Skeleton of Calcareous
- Choanocyte cells are largeand conspicuous Examples : Clathrina,Leucosolenia, Sycon, etc., Smallest sponge is
Class 2. Hexactinellida
- Skeleton of six rayed triaxon, silicious spicules,
- These are also knownas glass sponges. Examples : Euplectela, Hyalonema, etc. Euplectela is given as a precious Gift in Japan. Hyalonema is also known as Glass rope
Class 3. Demospongia
- Skeleton is either composed of spongin fibres or silicious spicules or a combination of both.
- The silicious spicules never six rayed
- The canal system complicated- Rhagon type
Examples : Spongilla, Chalina, Euspongia, Hippospongia, Oscarella, etc.,
Spongillais a fresh water sponge. Euspongia is bath sponge
Phylum Cnidaria /Coelenterata
The phylum “Cnidaria” derives its name from the presence of stinging cells called Cnidoblasts / Nematoblasts. The coelenterates have tissue level of body organisation. They are the first true metazoans (eumetazoans) with a radial symmetry. The word“Coelenterata” refers to the presence of an internal cavity called coelenteron, or gastro- vascular cavity, which functions both as digestive and body cavities.
About 9,000species are known.
General Characters :-
- The coelenterates are aquatic and solitary or colonial
- Two basic types of individuals occur in the life They are
polyps and medusa
- They diploblastic. The wall body wall is made up of two layers of cells, namely the ectoderm and the endoderm with a non–cellular layer in between called mesogloea.
- They have characteristics cells called Nematocysts or stinging
- The coelenterates are acoelomate animals
- A gastrovascular cavity or coelenteron comparable to the gut of higher animals is
- Mouth is present; but anus is absent
- Digestion is both extracellular as well as intracellular
- Respiratory, excretory and circulatory system are absent
- Nervous system is diffuse-type, composed of a loose network of nerve cells
- Reproduction is both by asexual and sexual methods
- Development is indirect as there are one or two forms of larva
- Life history of some forms includes alternation of generations or
metagenesis. i.e. the asexual sessile Polypoid stage alternates with sexual free swimming Medusoid stage. In plants, the asexual satge is diploid and sexual stage is haploid, But in coelenterates both poly and medusa are diploid so this type of alternation of generation is called Metagenesis.
Body wall of a Coelenterate
Cnidoblast Cnidoblast discharged
Class 1. Hydrozoa.
- They are both marine and fresh water. Gastro-vascular cavity without stomodaeum, septa or nematocysts bearing gastric filament
- Skeleton is horny perisarc in some forms, while coenosarc secretes a skeleton of calcium carbonate forming massive stony structure or coral reefs in other
- They are notable to exhibit Medusa is provided with true muscular velum.
- Many hydrozoa exhibit alternation of generation
- Gonads ectodermal in origin and discharged
- Cleavage is holoblastic, ciliated planula larva.
Examples : Hydra, Tubularia, Bougainvillea, Obelia, Sertularia, Plumularia Companularia, Millepora, Physalia, Porpita, Velella, Aurelia, Cynaea, Rhizostoma etc.
Physalia is also known as Portuguese man of war. Aurelia is also known as Jellyfish.
Anatomy of Hydra showing body wall
Life cycle of Obelia
Class 2. Scyphozoa
- Scyphhozoa cup shaped
- They are exclusively marine.
- Medusae are large, bell or umbrella-shaped and without true velum (acraspedote). They are free swimming or
- Marginal sense organs are tentaculocysts
- Polypoid generation is either absent or represented by small polyp- scyphistoma which gives rise to medusae by strobilization or transverse
- Gastrovascular system is without stomodaeum, with gastric filaments and may or may not be divided by
- Mesogloea is usually cellular e. it contains some cells
- Gonads are endodermal. Sex cells are discharged into the stomach. Aurelia
Class 3. Anthozoa
- They are also known as flower animals, are solitary or colonial and
- They are exclusively Medusoid stage is absent.
- The oral end of the body bears hollow tentacles surrounding the mouth in the
- The stomodaeum is often provided with one or more ciliated grooves- the
- Gastrovascular cavity is divided into compartments by complete or incomplete septa or
- Mesenteries bear nematocysts at their free edges
- Mesogloea contains fibrous connective tissue and amoeboid
Examples : Tubipora, Alcyonium, Heliopora, Gorgonia, Corallium, Metridium, Adamsia, Astraea, Fungia, Zoanthus.
Tubipora is commonly known as organ pipe
Adamsia is commonly known as sea anemone.
L.S. Sea Anemone( Metridium) showing its structure
Ctenophora is a small phylum containing only about 80 species. They are exclusively marine animals commonly called comb jellies or sea walnuts. They resemble Coelenterata as well as platyhelminthes.
Earlier, this phylum was placed under Coelenterata but later HATSCHEK (1889) placed it under a separate phylum calledCtenophora.
- They are solitary, pelagic and transparent animals having tissue- grade of organization.
- They have biradial symmetry.
- Theyare acoelomate, unsegmented,diploblastic
- The mesogloea contains
- Nematocysts are
- Special adhesive cells called colloblasts are present in all
- The gastrovascular system is well
- Skeletal system is
- Excretion and respiration by diffusion through general body surface
- The nervous system is in the form of nerve net.(17) An aboral sense organ- statocys
- Cilia areused for The cillia are arranged in the form of bands called comb plates.
- They are hermaphrodites, development is It includes a
Example : Beroe, Cestrum Pleurobachia,Coeloplana, Ctenoplana, Velamen, hemiphora
Practice Test Paper
- The most distinctive character of sponge is
(a) Presence of choanocytes (b) Unicellular (c) Marine (d) Asexual reproduction
- Canal system is only found in the
(a) Coelenterata (b) Porifera (c) Platyhelminthes (d) Nemathelminthe
- Which sponge is given as a gift in Japan
(a) Hyalonema (b) Euplectella (c) Tethya (d) Leucosolenia
- Which one is not typical to all porifers
(a) Perforated body (b) Choanocytes (c) System of pores and canal (d) Presence of spongin fibres
- Corals belong to the the phylum
(a) Protozoa (b) Porifera (c) Cnideria (d) Mollusca
- Phylum coelenterata has remained at
(a) Cellular level of organisation (b) Organ level of organisation (c) Tissue level of organisation (d) Organ system level of organisation
- Main cavity in the body of Hydra is called
(a) Gastrovascular cavity (b) Schizocoel (c) Haemocoel (d) Pseudocoelom
- The larva of hydra is
(a) Planula (b) Rhabditoid (c) Trochophore (d) None of these
- Mesogloea is present in the Phylum
(a) Porifera (b) Coelenterata (c) Annelida (d) Arthropoda
- Hydra is
(a) Triploblastic, radial symmetry & acoelomate (b) Triploblastic, radial symmetry & coelomate (c) Diploblastic, radial symmetry & acoelomate
(d) Diploblastic, radial symmetry & coelomate
- The level of body organization found in phylum porifera is ……… The comb plates found in the phylum Ctenophora are used for……..
- The body is perforated by numerous minute pores called…..
- The ostia open into a large central cavity called Name the larva found in coelenterates 16.Portuguese man of War is the name given to …….
- What is metagenesis
- The spongocoel opens to the outside by a large opening called……
- What is canal system
- Briefly explain about skeleton in Porifera
Answers and Solutions
- Cellular level of body organization
- Life history of some Coelenterates includes alternation of generation e. the asexual sessile Polypoid stage alternates with sexual free swimming Medusoid stage. In plants, the asexual satge is diploid and sexual stage is haploid, But in coelenterates both poly and medusa are diploid so this type of alternation of generation is called Metagenesis.
- The characteristic feature of the phylum porifera is the presence of a an inter-communicating system of cavities known as canal system. The canal system is vital for performing life activities of the sponge like respiration, circulation, excretion
- They have an endoskeleton of calcareous spicules or silicious spicules or spongin fibres or sometimes none