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class 10 GRAMMAR-READING

 

  1. Read the poem and answer the questions that follow:

 

THE LEADER

 

  1. Patient and steady with all he must bear,

Ready to meet every challenge with care,

Easy in manner, yet solid as steel,

Strong in his faith, refreshingly real.

 

  1. Isn’t afraid to propose what is bold,

Doesn’t conform to the usual mould,

Eyes that have foresight, for hindsight won’t do,

Never backs down when he sees what is true,

Tells it all straight, and means it all too.

 

  1. Going forward and knowing he’s right,

even when doubted for why he would fight,

Over and over he makes his case clear,

reaching to touch the ones who won’t hear.

Growing in strength he won’t be unnerved,

 

  1. Ever assuring he’ll stand by his word.

Wanting the world to join his firm stand,

Bracing for war, but praying for peace,

Using his power so evil will cease,

So much a leader and worthy of trust,

  1. Here stands a man who will do what he must.

 

(a)      The above poem refers to _________________________.

(b)      ‘Doesn’t conform to the usual mould’ suggests the person being described is ________.

(c)      The true qualities of a leader are ____________ and ____________(any two)

(d)      The leader would fight war bravely but __________.

(e)      Using his power so evil will cease: Here ‘cease’ means _______.

(f)       Find the antonyms of the following words from the passage

(i)       Hindsight [lines 5-7]

(ii)      Good [lines 15-18]

(g)      Find the synonyms of the following words from the passage:

(i)       Accurate [lines 8-10]

 

  1. TRUE GREATNESS

 

  1. Paderewsky was a rich man gifted with an ear for music. With his aptitude and with the help of tutors, in time, he became a great musician. He was a wizard with the violin. People thronged to hear his recitals, critics acknowledged him as a master violinist. He accepted the laurels heaped on him because he knew and realized the power of his music. Alas, success had made him proud. He felt that he was the only musician who could translate any emotion or render any tune on his violin. One day, while out on a morning walk in the woods he sat on a stone to admire nature. He felt that nature was all set to teach him a new tune of divine joy. The wind caused a gentle rustle of leaves and it seemed like the opening bars of a symphony. A few twigs fell, striking a strong note. There was a pause – a hush. Then a tiny sparrow started trilling a sweet song of gratitude to its maker, lifting its heart to heaven. The music of the swaying flowers and the enchanting song of the unassuming singer lulled and soothed the musician. It stirred the innermost recesses of his heart. He knew that he must render the same piece of music on his violin. The song ended and the bird flew away.

 

  1. The musician jumped up, elated. He rushed home excited. What a great tune nature had presented to him. He would render it on his violin for his performance that very evening. Evening came and the music hall was packed. Paderewsky went on stage and bowed to the audience. The accompanist played the opening bars. People waited with bated breath to catch the first notes of the great master. The artist smiled loftily and drew his bow lightly across the strings. But something unexpected had happened. He had forgotten the song of the bird completely. The tune he had heard only that morning had gone out his mind. Irritated, he tried again but only succeeded in making a few screeching noises. The audience grew restless. Some even laughed. Paderewsky felt humiliated and angered. He flung the violin, it smashed against the wall and broke. Paderewsky looked up dejected. The hall was empty. He had paid a heavy price for his vanity. Tears flowing he realized that even the humble sparrow was greater than him. The greatness of a person is not measured by the talents he or she has. It is not measured by the position one holds. It is never measured by the popularity or clout one has. It is measured by one’s humility and good deed.

 

In the following exercise, fill in the blanks with suitable words or phrases.

 

(a)      The two examples of Paderewsky’s success as a musician were

(i)       People thronged to hear his recitals

(ii)      __________________

(b)      Paderewsky did not_________because he was conscious of the power of his music.

(c)      As a result of his pride he assumed that he was the best musician who could ___________________.

(d)      One day, while out on a morning walk he sat on a stone to admire nature which  was all set to teach him a_________________

(e)      The two things that lulled and soothed the musician were

(i)       ______________

(ii)      The enchanting song of the humble sparrow.

(f)       The song of the bird influenced the musician so much that he felt____.

(g)      Something unexpected had happened. Paderewsky had forgotten________

(h)      The greatness of a person is measured not by his talents or position or popularity, but_____________

 

  1. Rest in peace

 

  1. Who climbed Mount Everest first? Edmund Hillary and Tensing Norgay set foot on the highest peak in the world in 1953, the year of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. But there is another school of thought, a more passionate one that gives the credit for the mountaineering feat to a team of two young daring Britons, George Leigh Mallory and Andrew Irving. They were supposed to have reached the summit of the Everest on 8thJune 1924, more than three decades before Hillary and Norgay reached the base of the mountain. There is only one problem with this theory: neither Mallory nor Irving lived to tell the tale of their success on the treacherous mountain. They disappeared somewhere close to the summit, some say only 180 metres from the bald patch of snow and ice, an uninspiring feature closer to the heavens than any other point in the world, which has attracted numerous intrepid souls across the world for decades. Therein hangs one of the most enduring mysteries of the mountaineering world by all accounts. Mallory and Irving were the unlikeliest of men to become partners in an adventure like an Everest expedition. Mallory was an experienced mountaineer, having honed his skills in the Alps and other European mountains Irving was younger to him and inexperienced. When they met, Everest was talked about in hushed tones in pubs where mountaineers often gathered to wind down and exchange stories. It was in a distant world. Nothing much was known about it except that the locals called it Sagarmatha and worshipped it as the holy seat of the Mother Goddess. What intrigued the mountaineers most was the British Surveyor General, George Everest, calling it, in the 19th  century, the highest mountain in the world. Until then, Europeans had never imagined there could be mountains higher than the Alps.

 

  1. The legend of the Everest was born thus. It fired the imagination of mountaineers of the world over. Mallory and Irving were just two of them who set forth for the distant mountain. The news of their success in opening the route across some of the most treacherous portions of the Everest route excited the mountaineering world to no end. It was the first time anyone had climbed to such heights. Even before dawn broke on 8th June 1924, Mallory and Irving began their journey to the summit. They were last seen then. Many said they fell to God’s wrath having defiled the holy seat of the Mother Goddess. Some said it was Irving’s inexperience which caused the tragedy. There were talks of the Yeti killing them. And yet there were others who argued that the duo never went anywhere near the summit and that it was all part of an imperialist conspiracy.

Two years ago, American guide Eric Simonson found Mallory’s frozen body some 180 metres from the summit and set at rest all such speculations. This year, he is planning another expedition to recover the remains of Irving. But he has run into stiff oppositions from Irving’s family which wants their hero to remain in the shadow of summit which, even in the day of space exploration, remains an enduring symbol of adventure and discovery.

 

3.A.    In the following exercise, fill in the blanks with suitable words or phrases.

(a)      Young and daring Britons, George Leigh Mallory and Andrew Irving are                             credited __________ more than three decades before Hillary and Norgay.

(b)      Mallory and Irving were the unlikeliest of men to become partners in                       adventures like an expedition to the Everest because __________

(c)      The Everest was called ____________of the Mother Goddess.

(d)      General George Everest called it the_______in the world, higher than _____

(e)     There are many curious about the disappearance of Mallory and Irving. Some of the these theories are:

(i)       _______________

(ii)      _______________

(ii)      Some say the yeti killed them.

(iv)     Some say it was a part of an imperialist conspiracy.

(f)       American guide Eric Simonson found Mallory’s frozen body  some _______.

 

3.B.    From the passage find a word which means the same as:

fearless/adventurous(para1)

 

  1. Read the following passage and answer the questions :

 

This is the story of Phineas Snodgrass, an inventor. He built a time machineand in it he went back some two thousand years to about the time of the birth of Christ. He made himself known to Emperor Augustus, his lady Livia and other powerful and rich Romans of the day and, quickly making friends, secured their cooperation in bringing about a rapid transformation of yearlong living habits. He stole the idea from a science fiction novel by L. Sprague De Camp called  “Lest Darkness Falls’’.

 

His time machine wasn’t very big, but his heart was. So Snodgrass selected his cargo with the plan of providing the maximum immediate help for the world’s people. The principal features of ancient Rome were dirt and disease, pain and death. Snodgrass decided to make the Roman world healthy and to keep its people alive through twentieth century medicine. Everything else could take care of itself, once the human race was free of its terrible plagues and early deaths.

 

Snodgrass introduced   penicillin and Aureomycin   and painless   dentistry.  He ground lenses for spectacles and explained the surgical techniques for removing cataracts. He taught anaesthesia,  germ theory of the disease and showed way to purify drinking water.He demanded and got covers for the open Roman sewers, and he pioneered the practice of a balanced diet.

 

4.A.    Read the questions given below and choose the option which you think is the most appropriate:

 

  1. i) Phineas Snodgrass built a
  2. a) Spaceship                           b) Aircraft
  3. c) Time machine                      d) Time selector

 

  1. ii) He quickly made friends in order to
  2. a) secure himself                     b)secure cooperation

c)write a novel                          d)meet Emperor Augustus

 

iii)      Snodgrass decided to make Romans

  1. a) Educated b)  Learn warfare

c)Healthy and alive                   d) Dirty and diseased

 

  1. iv) Plague means
  2. a) an infectious and fatal disease b)Death
  3. c) Unhygienic conditions    d )Painful death

 

  1. v) Snodgrass was a
  2. a) Painter                                b) Scientist
  3. c) Bone collector d) Builder

 

  1. vi) The Principal features of Rome was

a)Health and  hygiene               b)Dirt and disease

  1. c) Cooperation                          d) Rapid transformation

 

vii)     He wanted to use the medicine of

a)76 B.C.                                  b) 76 A.D

c)20th   Century                        d)  16th  Century.

 

  1. Read the following passage and answer the questions :–              

 

The Hindu Code Law was duly passed but it did not provide beleaguered women respite from the violence that gripped their lives. Even now, thanks to a disgraceful social practice, many women lead lives of anguish, often finding respite only in death. The name of this practice is dowry and many women, irrespective of whether they are poor or rich, are its hunted victims. The law prohibiting such practices had been passed much earlier in the Lok Sabha. But one must remember that the Congress could only get the law passed by applying the party whip on its own members. In other words, even within the Congress there were differences of opinion. In the opposition too  the orthodox fought against the bill.

 

When the law was being hotly debated, we too arranged many meetings and gatherings among women and collected many signatures in its support. We found that many poor housewives in towns and villages and many peasant women did not speak up against the bill. This was primarily out of fear if women couldn’t get married without paying a dowry, then what was the point of supporting this law? During our sessions we heard how much land peasant families and/ or lower and upper caste families had to give up and how many had become bankrupt in trying to get their daughters married. Still they didn’t have the courage to state, “No, we shall not pay dowry anymore”

 

But if the promised  amount  could   still  not be paid within the given period ,in certain cases ,the new bride fell victim  to the violent attacks of her husband and parents in law. Such incidents did not take place only in poor families but also   amongst  the   rich.  The   groom’s family often didn’t set limits to its cruelty – the bride could be killed or driven to suicide. His family dreamt of a new marriage for the groom with new dowry. Such incidents are often published in newspapers today. Even the rich have joined the anti – dowry  processions.

 

5.A.   Read the questions given below and choose the option that you think is the most appropriate :

 

  1. i) The Hindu code law was made to give respite to women from
  2. a) Violence                               b)Disgrace

c)Whipping                               d) Differences

 

  1. ii) In the passage ‘disgraceful social practice’ refers to

a )Poverty                                 b)Dowry

c)Violence                                 d) Untouchability

 

iii)      Orthodox means

  1. a) Extremely conservative b) Lawful
  2. c) Doubtful                              d) Opinionated
  3. iv) The Law had already been passed by
  4. a) Congress                              b) Lok Sabha
  5. c) Opposition                           d) Women
  6. v) Anguish means
  7. a) Pain and death                     b) Disgraceful
  8. c) Pain and suffering                d) Fight
  9. vi) The women did not speak against the bill due to

a )Shame                                  b) fear

  1. c) Pride                         d) Ignorance

vii)     The word Bankrupt means

  1. a) Without any money        b)cheating the bank

c)lending money                        d) saving money

 

 

 

 

FORMAL LETTERS

 

Letters to government officials, business houses, customers, editors, colleagues and acquaintances fall under the category of formal letters. As the term itself indicates, a formal letter is written in a formal style i.e. the language and tone of the letter as formal, impersonal or objective, therefore, no informal expressions, greetings or contracted forms of words are used. The language is straight forward and to the point. It may be strongly worded if need be but never impolite. You will find the following guidelines helpful in writing formal letters.

 

To the Officials   :       Begin by introducing yourself. Then clearly state the purpose of      writing.

Give details of what you want to do or want to be done e.g.                              applying for a newelectricity connection.

Make a request for appropriate/necessary action.

 

To the Editors    :       You may begin with a reference to recent developments, new

events etc.

Establish a context for writing.

Give details of the topic e.g. the problem of beggary, its causes                                          and effects andpossible solution.

Do not ask the Editor to solve your problems. He can only give voice to your views, concerns, complaints, suggestions, criticism, appreciation. He may also be approache for complaints against erring offiials, departments, business houses etc.

 

To Boss &          :       Show due respect but do not flatter.

Colleagues                 Clearly state the purpose of writing e.g. asking for a raise,                                 seeking action on aproposalor promise, making enquiries etc.

 

Acquaintances   :       Use polite language and pleasant tone.

Always be very polite (even if you have to complain).

 

To Business       :       Keep the tone friendly and pleasant.

Houses                      Do quote reference numbers, order numbers, cheque / demand

Customers                 draft numbers, filenumbers, code or ID numbers etc.

Convey your message in a brief and straight forward manner.

Give more importance to the reader.

 

We write formal letters to:

  • job applications.
  • get our problems addressed/seek redressal to them
  • inform others
  • persuade others
  • express our views on public issues.
  • appeal to others
  • warn someone
  • complain against someone
  • make enquiries.
  • send replies.
  • book/supply orders
  • send /ask for payments/discounts/brochures of information etc.
  • sell products.

Points to Remember

 

  • In Formal Letters there should be no use of informal expressions, greetings or contracted forms of words.
  • Language is straightforward and to the point.
  • It may be strongly worded if required but never impolite.
  • The heading includes the writer’s address and date. These are written at the top left hand corner of the letter.
  • The date should be written below the address.
  • Name/Designation and complete address of the recipient s written below the date line from the left side margin.
  • The salutation is written just below the date with a double space separating the two. Its choice depends upon the relation and intimacy the writer has with the addressee. For Professional Persons: Dear/Respected Sir/ Ma’am
  • The complimentary close/ subscription is a polite way of ending a letter. The expression used must match the salutation.
  • The signature is written just below the subscription.
  • Word limit : 120-150 words.

Common Mistakes Usually Made by the Students

 

  • Writer’s address should precede the receiver’s address.
  • The editor should not be asked to solve your problems. He can only give voice to your views, concerns, complaints, suggestions, criticism and appreciation.
  • Show due respect but do not flatter.
  • Do not be disrespectful; always be very polite (even if you have to complain).
  • Do not forget to offer plausible suggestions to the problem.

 

 

Format:

 

OWN ADDRESS

_______________________________

_______________________________

 

DATE

 

RECEIVER’S ADDRESS

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

 

SALUTATION (RESPECTED SIR/SIR)

 

SUB:

 

CONTENT-   1ST PARA- INTRODUCTION

2ND PARA- EXPANSION

3RD PARA- SUMMARISE

4TH PARA- CONCLUSION

 

COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE

SUBSCRIPTION

SIGNATURE

FULL NAME

 

 

Sample Letter

 

Q.1.   Write a letter to the editor expressing your views on the growing corruption levels in the country. Also mention the ways by which this growing menace can be tackled.

 

L-119

Scc-56 Gurgaon

Haryana

 

29th October 2014

 

The Editor

The Times of India

Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg

New -Delhi-110048

 

 

Sir

 

Subject : Growing Corruption Levels in the Country

 

Through the columns of your esteemed daily, I would like to draw your kind attention to the growing cases of corruption in our country. It would not be wrong to say that corruption has seeped into the very fabric of our society.

 

Every day we hear politicians taking bribe or scams being unearthed by the media. It is sad to witness the tremendous strides our country has taken and the shallowness of our system. As a responsible citizen of the country myself, I feel some of us are completely unaffected by the state of affairs going on in our country, whether it is the CWG lapses or the 2G scam.

 

In order to bring a change in the system I sincerely feel that the Government should take stricter actions against the perpetrators of law and punish them severely. People should raise their voice against loopholes in the system. There should be public forums, symposiums organized where we can express our opinions. It is really the need of the hour and hope some prompt action shall be taken for the same.

 

Thanking you

 

Yours sincerely

Abhinav Sharma

 

 

Q.2.   You are Sunil Shetty of 7, Club Road, Hyderabad-13. Write a letter to the Editor of The Hyderabad Times, P.O. Box 350 Hyderabad-1, about the bad quality and inadequate supply of tap water in your locality.

 

7, Club Road

Hyderabad

 

12 November 2014

 

The Editor

The Hyderabad Times

P.O. Box 350

Hyderabad

 

 

Sir

 

Subject: Inadequate Supply of Water

 

Through the columns of your newspaper, I would like to draw the attention of the civic authorities to the bad quality and inadequate supply of tap water in our locality.

 

It is unfortunate that the civic authorities do not take care to provide the citizens with even the basic amenities such as proper and adequate water supply. In our locality, water is supplied only for an hour in the morning. For the rest of the day, the taps remain dry. Also, the quality of water supplied is unhygienic. There have been some cases of diarrhea and dysentery. It is feared that these diseases may break out in an epidemic form if the quality of water is not improved.

 

It is hoped that instead of ignoring the matter, the authorities concerned will take immediate steps to ensure adequate supply of good quality tap water in our locality.

 

 

Yours faithfully

Sunil Shetty

 

 

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Write a letter to the Editor of a newspaper appealing to the general public for contribution to the Chief Minister’s Drought Relief Fund. (Word Limit: 120 words).

 

  1. Write a letter to the Editor of a newspaper expressing your disapproval of the so called inaugural functions which cause so much national waste. Give instances of such waste from your observation.

 

  1. Suppose you are an educationist and feel strongly about the flaws in the existing system of examination. You feel that the system neglects the talents and skills of students and is restricted to classroom teaching. Write a letter to the editor of an English newspaper making a case for education beyond classroom teaching. Sign yourself as Dr. Manoj Lamba.

 

  1. Write a letter to the Editor of the daily, “The Tribune”, about rash and reckless driving, suggesting preventive measures. You are Navin/Neha living at B-47, Friends Colony, and New Delhi.

 

  1. Last year a fifty-year old man died of cardiac arrest while taking a ride on a swing in an amusement park. Write a letter to the Editor suggesting some safety measures which park owners must observe before issuing tickets. You are Parul/Parijat, living at 15, Subhash Nagar, Jaipur.

 

 

DEBATE WRITING

 

A Debate is a formal method of interactive and representational argument. The purpose of a debate is to convey information orally to a large gathering of people and to convert the listeners to the speaker’s point of view.

 

Points to Remember

  • A catchy phrase or statement/quotation is always preferred at the opening. This enhances the impact of the content.
  • A formal greeting and self-introduction is essential.
  • Content should be supported with arguments and counter-arguments to give it the desired impact.

Format

Title /Heading

1st Para- Opening statement/ Quotation+ Formal Greeting+Self

Introduction+Statement of Topic (Motion- For or Against)

2nd Para- Expansion of the concerned topic with supporting facts

3rd Para- Summarize+ reiterate your stand

4th Para- Conclusion

 

You will find the following expressions useful in preparing your own arguments :

 

·                     I’d like to raise a question/argue …

·                     Inmy opinion….

·                     Ifeel very strongly that…

·                     I’d like to present my views …

·                     I am amazed by the views expressed by…

·                     I would like to draw attention to …

·                     I fail to understand…

·                     I submit that…

·                     My first/next/final argument against/in favour of…

·                     My knowledgeable opponent has submitted that…

·                     Do you realise that….

·                     Believe it or not…..

·                     You may not believe it but…………………. ……….

·                     It may sound strange but ….

·                     The surprising thing is …….

·                     Surprisingly….

·                   Funnily enough….

·                   Oddly enough….

·                   Don’tforget that….

·                   The point is….

·                   The problem is…

·                   The trouble is …

·                   May I ask…

·                   I strongly oppose/support the view that…

·                   On the contrary…

·                   How can you be so ignorant as to say that..

·                   I totally disagree with the view …

·                   I condemn

·                   I firmly reject…

·                   I wholeheartedly oppose/support…

·                   I support the motion that…

 

 

 

  1. Your school is organizing a debate competition on the topic. “Death Sentence Should Be Abolished”. Write a short speech in about 150 words in favour of the motion.

          In your speech you should

            Begin with a formal address to the audience, take your position (i.e. supporting the motion) and announce the topic.

            Give reasons in support of your arguments that prove that death sentence should be abolished

            Conclude by saying that you strongly support the motion.

 

Ans.   That day when I heard the news that Dhananjay Chatterjee had been executed I was reading a play ‘The Other Side’ by J.S. Knapp in which a father who is an executioner executes his own murderer son. Honestly, I felt very sad.

 

          Ladies and Gentlemen, I Naya Narang stand before you to whole-heartedly support the motion : ‘Death Sentence should be abolished.’

 

My first argument in support of the motion is that we have no right to take the life of any human being. Hetal Parekh’s rape and murder was heinous and most unfortunate but Dhananjay’s death has not and cannot bring her back to life. Far from being justice, I think it is revenge in disguise both for the late victim and her bereaved family.

 

Will my worthy opponent, who has strongly advocated death penalty, please answer this question : If death penalty is not inhuman, why are our courts trying to find a ‘more human’ method to kill? Are we humans or blood thirsty barbarians? Several countries have already abolished or are in the process of abolishing death sentence. Statistics show that my 1998, 67 countries had abolished the inhuman sentence and 24 others were not practicising the death penalty law.

 

Even the statute of the International Criminal Court has excluded death penalty as punishment for heinous crime. Here we are holding on to the dreaded rope – the relic of the Raj and ruthless regimes in the ancient times.The essential fault of death sentence is that it is irrevocable. Mistakes can be rectified, death cannot be. You see mistake are inevitable in all systems of justice, however scrupulous the process and however honest the participants may be.

 

Finally, I would like to argue that as we are developing as a society, we should move away from barbaric practices. Punitive justice is vital but death penalty is not. Only God can give life. Let us not try to be God.

Therefore, I whole-heartedly appeal that Death Sentence should be abolished immediately.

 

Thank you!

 

 

 

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. You have participated in an Inter House debate contest in your school on ‘Hindi should be the medium of instruction in schools in India’. Write your debate in not more than 150 words.

 

  1. You are participating in an Inter Class debate Competition on ‘Peer Pressure is not always beneficial.’ You may take ideas from MCB Unit on ‘Children’. You are Sanjiv/Saroj of The Little Genius Debate Society. Write in minimum 150 words.

 

  1. You are taking part in an Inter School Debate Contest. The topic of the debate is, ‘Animal performances should be prohibited in circuses.’ Write for or against the topic in minimum 150 words.

 

  1. Schools have instituted all kinds of prizes for students. You have to participate in an Inter-House Debate Contest, the topic being, ‘Schools should end the practice of giving grades.’ Write your debate in not less than 150 words.

 

REPORTING AN EVENT

 

(Events and Experiences)

 

A Report is a factual description of an event or a happening. It may also give an analytical analysis of an event. A good report is always based on first hand information about the incident/ event / happening. A reportcan be a lengthy document or a short piece of description, depending upon the nature of the report. There are many types of reports, but we will confine ourselves to newspaper reports describing events / incidents / happenings / functions and business reports.

 

Events / Functions

 

  • Name of the event
  • Situation / Occasion
  • Name of the Chief Guest / Name of the Person presiding over the function
  • Time, Date, Place
  • Gist of the Chief Guests’ speech
  • Description of the event / function
  • Something specific about the event/ function
  • Prize Distribution/ or any other ceremony performed by the Chief Guest
  • Thanks by one of the organisers
  • The writer’s analytical comment on the quality/ merit of the programme

 

Accidents

 

  • Cause of the accident
  • Where (Place)
  • When (appr. Time)
  • How (reason)
  • Vehicles involved in the accident
  • People’s help / Rescue and relief operation
  • Casualities if any
  • Persons injured
  • First aid
  • Inquiry by the government
  • Announcement by the government about grants to the next kin of the killed and the injured.
  • Analytical comments by the writer.

Format of a Formal Report

 

Heading

(By : Name, Designation)

Place, Date  :

 

Body of the Report:

  • Highlighting the subject / event
  • Contents of the report
  • Winding up the report, with recommendations and action to be taken.
  • Signature with Name and Designation.

Points to Remember

 

For Newsreport

  • Give a heading.
  • Be sure to include all relevant information.
  • Newspaper reports should have headline, date, place of origin of news, name of reporter.

Sample Report

Q.1.

As a TOI correspondent, write a short report on the inaugural function of Jeevan Rakshak Hospital and Heart Institute at Dayanand Vihar for your newspaper.

 

Hospital Inaugurated

TOI correspondent

 

New Delhi, June 5 : Jeevan Rakshak Hospital and Heart Institute, Dayanand Vihar was inaugurated by Mrs. Sheila Dikshit, the Chief Minister of Delhi, on Wednesday, June 7, 2006. The 200-bedded institute has been upgraded with the latest ultra modern and top-of-the-line machines, besides enhanced infrastructure to support exigencies. Addressing the gathering, Dr.Dheer, the Medical Superintendent, expressed his satisfaction with the arrangements and facilities provided at the institute and reinforced the need for total commitment of the medical staff and the other employees towards their noble profession. Leaflets were distributed, highlighting a brief history of the institute, facilities and the treatment available therein. The Institute is constructed at the cost of Rs. 20.18 crores and is spread over an area of 9,120 sq. metres.

 

 

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. You are Kiran Malhotra, a staff reporter of The Hindustan Times’, Lucknow. You have witnessed a roadaccident involving a lorry and a Maruti Omni in Hazratganj, Lucknow. Write a report, giving the details of number of people injured and the extent of damage caused to the colliding vehicles in not more than 125 words for your newspaper.

 

  1. As the reporter of The Times of India’, New Delhi, write a report on the fire accident in the market-place, which you witnessed. You are Praveen/Parvathi. (Word limit: 125)

 

  1. Write a report as an eyewitness to the bus accident that occurred near B.M.C. Chowk, Ambala. Word Limit: 125 words.

 

  1. You are a newspaper correspondent who has been asked to cover ‘The Lifelong Friendship Campaign’ launched by the SOS Children’s Village on the occasion of its 40th year of service to needy children. Write a newspaper report on the campaign.

 

  1. Suppose you are a press reporter. You have come to an accident site to coverthe news of a car accident in which three members of a family were killed. Write a newspaper report that you would like to file your editor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

DIALOGUE WRITING

 

Guidelines for Dialogue Writing

 

Dialogue writing is a harder exercise than writing a biographical sketch or attempting data interpretation. It involves higher writing skills. The student has to provide not only a suitable sentence, an answer or a remark, but also keep the sense of the passage in mind i.e. the preceding and the following sentence.

 

The completed piece should read as an organized whole. The student is expected to present ideas in a coherent and concise manner.

 

Q.1.

 

Study the conversation between a shopkeeper and a Customer and complete the dialogue meaningfully in less than 80 words.

Customer: – Would you give me two kilos of Potatoes and pack it in a plastic carry bag?

Shopkeeper: – Certainly sir, I can give you potatoes, but Ia) _________________   Customer: – Strange!  Then  b) _________? Today  I _____

Shopkeeper: – That’s c)  __________________but I am helpless.

Customer:  Why ?

Shopkeeper: –   Don’t you d) ___________________ as they increase pollution?

Customer: Thank you for e) ________________ and I shall______________

Ans.

  1. a) I cannot give you any plastic bag.
  2. b) How to carry potatoes? Should I carry then in my pockets? Today I forgot to bring my shopping bag.
  3. c) That’s your problem, sir.
  4. d) Don’t you know that the Government has banned the use of polythene .
  5. e) Reminding me about such an important point. I shall never use          plastic from now onwards.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

 

Study the Dialogues and complete the dialogue meaningfully within 80 words.

 

  1. Ajay :         Could you kindly show me some bathing soaps?

Salesgirl      :         Oh, ofcourse, Sir _____________________________.

Ajay             :         I would like one with the fragrance of jasmine.

Salesgirl      :         Here _____________________________________.

Ajay             :         Do you also have some perfumes?

Salesgirl      :         Which ________________________________________.

Ajay             :         Which one would you recommend?

Salesgirl      :         ____________________ most popular one.

Ajay             :         Thank you. I will take that one.

 

 

  1. Husband : Namrata has failed in her semester exams. What does she do all day?

Husband      :         I ___________________________________________.

Wife             :         I wonder what’s troubling her?

Husband      :         Well, _______________________________________.

Wife             :         I think we should meet her teacher.

Husband      :         I shall ________________________________________.

Wife             :         We must go together.

Husband      :         I ______________________________________________.

 

  1. Aryan : Mr. Dutta, the Acer computer which I bought from your showroom last week is a defective piece.

Suraj           :         Could you ____________________________________.

Aryan          :         There seems to be some problem with the mouse. It keeps                                                 giving wrong commands to the computer applications.

Suraj           :         ________________________________________________.

Aryan          :         I have hardly used it.

Suraj           :         ________________________________________.

Aryan          :         Yes, here it is.

Suraj           :         Please leave it behind our __________________.

Aryan          :         Thanks

 

  1. Interviewer :         ________________________________________?

Raghav        :         I have done my masters in Political Science.

Interviewer  :         ________________________________________?

Raghav        :         I did my schooling from Holy Angel Public School in                                                          Lucknow.

Interviewer  :         ________________________________________?

Raghav        :         There is limited scope for growth in that company.

Interviewer  :         ________________________________________?

Raghav        :         Thank you, Sir I shall wait for your decision.

 

  1. Customer :         I’d like to change these shoes.

Shopkeeper  :         When _______________________?

Customer     :         Someone _____________________.

Shopkeeper  :         I’m sorry, I need _________________.

Customer     :         How can I ask my friend for the receipt?

Shopkeeper  :         I am _____________________________.

 

 

 

 

 

MODALS

 

Modal Auxiliaries that express the mode of action denoted by the main verbs are called Modals.

Or

Modals are the modified forms of helping verbs.

 

The main modals are as follows :

 

Shall, will, should, would, can, could, may, might, must, ought to, used to, need, has/had/have to, etc.

 

Features of Modals

 

  1. Modals always  express  the  imaginary  actions  like  ability,  power,  permission,  request,  possibility, willingness, certainty, etc.

 

  1. Modals do not come alone, they always take the 1st form of the verb with them.

 

  1. Modals are never affected by the person, number and gender of the subject.

 

Modal                             What it Expresses

Shall                               Simple future (When used with 1st person i.e., I/we)

                                                                                              Threat, Promise, determination, command when used with 2nd or 3rdperson (you, he, she, it, they)

Will                                 Simple future when used with 2nd or 3rd person

                                                                                              Threat, Promise, determination, command when used with 1st person

Should                            Duty, Obligation, advice, suggestions, request, surprise,

                                      purpose, etc.

Past form of ‘shall’

Would                             Past form of ‘will’

                                      Willingness, past habit, determination, suggestion, polite

request, wishor desire, unreal condition

Can                                Ability, strong possibility, permission

Need                               Used with weakness, necessity, obligation (Negative and

Interrogative sentences)

Could                             Past form of can, Ability of past, polite request, possibility,

                                      etc.

May                                Formal permission, doubtful possibility, purpose, wish

Might                             Past form of ‘May’

                                      Possibility, purpose

Must                               Necessity, compulsion, obligation, determination, certainty,

                                      emphatic advice, prohibition, etc.

Ought to                         Moral duty, obligation, advice, strong probability

Used to                           Past habit

Has to/Have to/Had to  Forced action of future or past

 

Solved Example

 

Fill in the blanks with appropriate modals.

(i)    .. “How long (a) ……………….  or (b) …………  a person wait on a hungry stomach?” Thisthought constantly (c)……………….. come to an impoverished man who (d)        waittill his unemployment days are over. “(e)…………. I never get two full meals?” occupieshis thought box. He (f)…………..not even get a chance ever to come out of this vicious circleof poverty.

(ii)      On the Annual Day celebration, the Principal delivered a lecture, “Good Evening Children, youall (a)…………… be the future policy makers, hence you (b)………… obey your teachers. You(c)………………  always try to win over the confidence of your superiors. You must not leave anystone unturned and you (d)……………… not worry about the result. Take a pledge that you(e)………….. obey and respect your elders. You (f)………………take whatever stream youlike but excel in the path chosen.

Ans.

(i)        (a)      can     (b)      should         (c)      may

(d)      has to (e)      Shall           (f)       might

 

(ii)       (a)      will     (b)      ought to       (c)      should

(d)      need   (e)      shall            (f)       may

 

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate modals choosing from ‘have to’ ‘has to’ or ‘had to’.

(a)      Prachi ………….. work hard as one week is left for her CA Final Examination.

(b)      We……………… borrow money as there was lack of funds.

(c)      All the children of class tenth will       ……………. go to the principal’s office to collect their mark sheet.

(d)      Nowadays the women have dual responsibilities as they ……………      work at home and office aswell.

(e)      The government…….. give up as Anna Hazare was determined to fight corruption in his ownway.

(f)       Rakesh……….. work hard to clear his exams this time.

(g)      Kartik……….. help his mother as all their servants were on leave.

(h)   .. Garima………….. go to the market to buy the grocery as the guests are arriving now.

(i)   … The masons……… complete the construction today.

(j)   … Prema cannot accompany them as she …………………wind up with her work.

 

Fill in the blanks with appropriate modals.

 

2……. Ram (a)…….. keep his word as he (b)……… repay all his loan. He (c)……..be seventeennext week. I am certain that you (d)…………….. see that how successfully he has accomplished his mission.(e)………………………………….. he live long ! You (f) ……………….. not worry. Your money is safe.

 

3……. A person with  a  fragile ego (a)  ….  take anything you  say personally. They  not only(b)    a hard time ahead, but (c)……………………  also feel insulted. They (d)     gethurt and in return they (e)………………. injure others. They are called sadists who (f)………….. certainly mar others’ reputation.

 

  1. … In India the death toll due to road accidents (a) ………………….. increased drastically. Most of them(b) ……………….. have been averted. Wider road awareness among road users (c)………………….be taught.

……… Separate lanes for heavy vehicles (d) ………………….be made. More stringent laws (e)………………. beenforced while issuing licenses. If we do not follow this, the degrading society like ours (f)……………………….. fail the next day.

 

  1. Cross-Border terrorism (a)………….. increase if there is no check now. The prime cause is,anybody who enters the state illegally (b)………….. be permitted to stay. Our government (c)       ………………. undertake strong measures so that this act could be prevented. I hope the terrorists (d) ……………… realise their moral obligation. Kill the sin and not the sinner, hence the terrorists (e)……………..not

be punished rather they (f)………………          to be rehabilitated.

 

  1. Complete the dialogue by filling in the blanks.

Frog             You (a)…………….. practise for longer hours as it will make your          voice grow stronger.

Nightingale But I (b)…………….. as the weather is bad.

Frog             If you don’t then you (c)………………lose your audience. You (d)                      …………………. to make them happier.

Nightingale  No, I am leaving your Bingle Bog Jungle right now, I (e)…………….                           not sing at any cost.

Frog             You (f)………………… not or else I will kill you.

 

  1. Kinshuk Doctor, I am not feeling well, (a) ……………you please issue me a                             medical certificate?

Dr. Anil       Yes, certainly I (b)………….. if you (c) …………..       tell me your ailment.

Kinshuk       Sir, I (d)…………. go to Simla as I am suffering from workaholism.

Dr. Anil       This is no ailment. Sorry, in that case I (e)……….You (f)………..                      leave now.

 

  1. Prachi (a)…………I remind you that tomorrow we (b)………. go for a movie ?

Rashmi        No, you (c)……………….I (d)……………. ask Namrata to remind me.

Prachi          I (e)…………………..          be happy if you bring your sister along.

Rashmi        OK. I (f)………………… certainly.

 

  1. Vedant Mom, (a) ……………..I go for a picnic tomorrow with my friends?

Mom            Yes, you (b)………… but you (c)………. be very careful to carry your

water bottle along.

Vedant         Ma, I (d)…………………….certainly do that.

Mom            I am little perturbed about your health, (e) …………………..         you    carry your mobile in case I       (f)………. communicate with your        teacher?

 

  1. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate modal.

Mohan   is   not   keeping   well   nowadays.   He   (a) ……………….   see  the  doctor   immediately.   He(b) ……………….. get well unless he visits a doctor. He (c) ……………. be suffering from viralfever. He (d)…………….    take proper medicine and rest lest he (e)……………..fall seriously ill. It(f)………………        affect not only his health but studies also.

 

 

CLAUSE

What is a Clause?

 

A Clause is a part of a sentence which has a subject and a finite verb, e.g.,

 

This is the place where I was born.

In this sentence there are two clauses. In the first clause ‘this’ and ‘is’ are the subject and the verb respectively.

Inthe second clause ‘I’ and ‘was born’ are the subject and the verb respectively.

Inthis way, the more finite verbs—the more clauses in a sentence. If there is a single ‘finite verb’ in a sentence, then it is not a clause. It is a simple sentence, e.g.,

          He goes to school. (Simple Sentence- No Clause)

          Note. If there are more than one finite verbs in a sentence, then it is either a Complex or Compound sentence.

          Kind of Clauses.

  1. The Principal Clause. The Principal Clause is a clause which is complete in itself and expresses its meaning clearly. It does not take any support from any other clause for conveying clearly its   meaning. So, it is also known as ‘the main clause’, ‘the independent clause’ or ‘the complete clause’,

e.g., I do not know where he lives.

In this sentence ‘I do not know’ is the Principal clause because it provides a clear meaning.

Note. The Principal Clause never begins with any Conjunction.

 

II       The Subordinate Clause. The Subordinate Clause is a clause which is not complete in itself for expressing its clear meaning. It cannot provide its meaning clearly without the help of the Principal Clause. So, it is also known as ‘the dependent clause’ or ‘the incomplete clause’, e.g., I asked her why she came late.

In this sentence, the clause ‘why she came late’ does not provide a clear meaning, that is why it is the sub-ordinate clause.

 

          Kinds of Subordinate Clauses. The Subordinate clause is divided into three parts :

1        The Noun Clause

  1. The Adjective / Relative Clause
  2. The Adverb Clause

 

  1. The Noun Clause. The Noun clause is a clause which does the work of a noun in the sentence.
  2. The Adjective/Relative Clause. The Adjective clause is a clause which does the work of an adjective in the sentence.
  3. The Adverb. The Adverb clause is a clause which does the work of an adverb in the sentence.

 

The Noun Clause

Recognition. Ask the question ‘what’ to the main verb, the answer is always the noun clause, e.g., He told me that he was feeling unwell.

 

Question :   He told me…… what?

 

Answer : That he was feeling unwell. (Noun Clause)

The Noun Clause generally begins with the connectives—who, whose, whom, when, where, which, what, why, how, that, if and whether.

  1. 1. How it happened, is a mystery.
  2. Do you know when the train will arrive?
  3. I know where he lives.
  4. I desire that I must pass.
  5. I know who has stolen your purse.
  6. I want to know how far he is right.
  7. I want to know when will you return.
  8. Your success depends on how you work.

 

The Adjective Clause / Relative Clause

 

Recognition :

 

  1. The Adjective/Relative Clause generally begins with relative pronouns—who, whose, whom, that, which, as, as well as relative adverbs—when, where, why and how.
  2. The Adjective/Relative Clause always qualifies the Principal Clause, e.g.,

(i)                 He is the boy who had made a noise.

(a)He is the boy ………………. Principal Clause.

(b)Who had made a noise …………….. Sub. Adjective Clause.

Qualifying the noun ‘boy’.

(ii)      You know the time when he is coming.

(iii)     This is the place where I was born.

(iv)     This is the boy whose father has been appointed Collector.

(v)      God helps those who help themselves.

 

The Adverb Clause

 

Recognition.The Adverb Clause is used to modify a verb, adjective or adverb given in any other clause. It expresses time, place, purpose, reason, manner, extent, condition, result, comparison and contrast.

 

  1. Time.Adverb Clause of Time indicates time and generally starts with the Subordinating Conjunctions— when, whenever, till, until, before, after, since, while, as, as soon as, as long as, so long as, etc., e.g.
  2.           As soon as he saw me, he began to weep.

(a)he began to weep …………….. Principal Clause.

                   (b)As soon as he saw me……….Sub.Adverb Clause, showing ‘time’.

  1.           When the cat is away, the mice will play.
  2. I get up before the sun rises.
  3. We shall wait here until you come.
  4. When the sun sethe returned home.

 

  1. Condition.Adverb Clause of Condition shows condition. It generally starts with the Subordinating Conjunctions—if, unless, provided, in case, whether … or, etc., e.g.
  2.           If you work hard, you will pass.

(a)You will pass ……………… Principal Clause.

(b)If you work hard…………….Sub. Adverb Clause showing ‘condition’.

 

  1.           I shall let you go provided you speak the truth.
  2. Were I in your position, I would resign.
  3. No man can become a great artist unless he dedicated himself to art.
  4. If it rains, we shall not go out.

 

Solved Example

 

  1. Complete the sentences that follow.

 

Sunita :Today ManojVerma rang up to ask why we were not going to gym.

……… Neetu :I realised   that (a) …………

Sunita :But we have paid money in advance for the next three months.

……… Neetu :I dont’ know (b)……………

……… Sunita :I’ll talk to Manoj about the refund of the money.

……… Neetu :I will also find out (c)……….

 

Ans.   (a) excessive exercise is harmful

(b) how to get my money back

(c) what sort of man he is

 

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Completethe sentences that follow.

 

  1. Sushil:The laptop (a) …………  is superb. I liked it. Where did you buy it from?

          Sunil    :I bought it from a custom shop at Singapore (b) ………………

          Sushil:Anil was saying (c) …….. ……….

 

  1. Sonu:Have you ever visited Assam?

          Monu:Yes, (a) ………………

          Sonu:Do you know (b) ……………

          Monu:It is a beautiful place and it is very famous for tea gardens.

          Sonu:Can you tell me (c) ………..

 

  1. Rakesh:You’ve a wonderful car. Please tell me (a)…

          Harry   :It is Mercedes Benz.

          Rakesh:Please tell me (b) ………

          Harry   :From a leading finance company.

          Rakesh:Do you know (c) ……….

          Harry   :      Yes Ido.

 

  1. Vandana      :  Congratulations ! Komal, you have done very well in English.

          Komal         : Thank you very much.

          Vandana: Tell me (a) …………. and (b) ………………..

          Komal         : Certainly yes,  I  studied  from   Master  English  Coaching

                             Centre.  They  gave  us  regularassignments and weekly tests.

          Vandana:  I would like to know (c) ………………..

 

  1. Sudha:That girl (a) ………………..is very beautiful.

Moni    :I like her saree. I saw the same saree in Karol Bagh (b) ………….

          Sudha:Next Sunday we shall go to buy the same saree (c) ………………

 

  1. Niru:Anita, please tell me (a) ……………………

          Anita    :I think (b)…………….

          Niru:OK. It will suit me but make sure (c) …………………..

 

  1. Johny:We went to watch the IPL match and it was a great fun.

          Pooja   :(a)…………. ………….to see IPL?

          Johny:We went there last evening with Rakesh uncle but I apologise that

(b)  …………………… you aswe had two tickets.

          Pooja:No problem.Next time (c) ………………..at least inform me. I can

arrange my ticket.

  1. Radha:I would like to know (a) ………………..

          Ricky   :I think (b) …………………

          Radha:All right, I think (c) …………….after that.

 

  1. Complete the passage given below by writing a suitable clause.

Anju was punished by her teacher and she shared this with her mother. Bewildered mother did notbelieve in the beginning and asked Anju (a) …………… Anju told her mother that she had not beenable to complete her project file. Mother asked her (b) ………………..when she was pre-occupied withher entrance exam. Mother advised Anju (c) …………………….

 

  1. Complete the lines by writing a suitable clause in the blanks.

 

  1. Raghav asked Swati (a) …… during the summer vacation. Swati replied that she had been toMalaysia (b) …………………..

Raghav : I would also like to accompany you. (c)…..

 

  1. The teacher has advised us (a) ………………We shall follow  the rules courteously (b)……………Nobodyis allowed to get down from the train (c) ………………..
  2. Anu       :   Have you bought a mobile for Karan?

          Amrita  :   Yes, but I do not know (a) ………………..

          Anu       :   Can I help you to pack (b) ………………

          Amrita :   That is really nice of you, tell me (c) ………

          Anu:Give me a wrapping paper, a pair of scissors, a ribbon and a roll of cellotape.

 

  1. While talking to his son on the phone, father told Anil (a) …………….. in Northern India. Aniltold his father not to worry as the epicentre was in Karnal, which is 120 km from Delhi. He askedhim (b)………………………………………………………… and he replied that he was perfectly fine. When he asked him(c) ……………………………..  he replied that he was not aware of the havoc caused by the earthquake as no detailswere available.

 

  1. Mohan told me (a) ………..  the book (b) …………….  by Kalidas. He gifted the book toManoj (c) …………………………………  his best friend.

 

  1. It is certain (a)……… in his examination. He will get good marks (b)……. His fathertold me (c)………………………….

 

PREPOSITIONS

A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to show its relation with other words in text. Prepositionsare used before nouns to give additional information in a sentence. Usually, prepositions are used to show where something is located or when something happened.

Prepositions can be of the following types:

  1. Prepositions of time

These prepositions are used:

(a)      to denote the time of the day

            Examples:     I went to the market on Monday.

                                    The movie starts at three o’ clock.

(b)      to denote parts of the day, months, years, seasons

            Examples:     The sun rises in the morning.

The Board exams are heldin March.

My sister was born in 1999.

Shimla is a place one should visit in summer.

(c)      to denote extended time

            Examples:     She has not eaten since yesterday.

                                    I will be on vacation for two weeks.

The first term will be from June to September.

Some children play during lunchtime.

She will complete this project within a year.

  1. Prepositions of place

These types of prepositions are used:

(a)      to denote a particular point

            Examples:     There are many rooms in the school.

                                    The jewels are keptinside the case.

The basket is kepton the chair.

There is a sale at the shop.

(b)      to denote a place higher than a point

            Examples:     The kite flew over my roof.

He lives in the flat just above mine.

(c)      to denote a place lower than a point

            Examples:     They have constructed the parking under the ground.

                                    The children snuggled underneath the blanket.

They hid the treasure beneath the rocks.

There is an entirely new world below the sea-level.

(d)      to denote a neighbouring point

            Examples:     She has a shop near the park.

There is a cyber cafe by the store.

The vendor sells vegetables next to my house.

Her house is situatedbetween Saket and Malviya Nagar.

She is the happiest in the library among books.

The school is situatedopposite a cinema hall.

  1. Prepositions introducing objects

These types of prepositions are used:

(a)      as objects of verbs

            Examples:      It is difficult not to laugh at his joke.

The teacher asked the students to look at the blackboard.

It is very natural to smile at a baby.

(b)      with ‘of’

            Examples:    I did not approve of his behaviour.

This book consists of many pages.

He dreams of becoming a film star.

  1. Prepositions of location

These prepositions are used:

(a)      To denote a point

            Examples:     Is your father at home?

There was no guard at the railway crossing.

There was a huge crowd at the bank.

(b)      to denote surface

            Examples:    The man was working on his presentation.

A ship floats on water.

(c)      to denote an area/volume in an enclosed area

            Examples:     The cattle are in the pasture.

There are five windows in the room.

There is a lot of waterlogging in the streets.

(d)      to denote an area/volume not enclosed by a fence

            Example:       The horses were grazing in the open field.

  1. Prepositions of direction

These prepositions indicate the direction.

            Example:       The hospital is situated at the corner of J Block and Pushp Vihar.

  1. Prepositions of destination

These prepositions are used to indicate:

(a)      movement towards a goal

            Examples:     He walked all the way to his apartment.

                                    It is a very short distance to the bus stop.

(b)      movement towards a surface

             Examples:    The ball fell onto the net.

The short stories were recordedonto cassettes.

The window opened directly onto the pavement.

(c)      movement towards the interior of a volume

Example:      The cat fell into the well.

(d)      movement in a general direction

Example:       She always sits meditating with her face towards the east.

 

  1. Prepositions denoting means of transportation

These prepositions are used:

(a)      to indicate climbing

Example:       She finds it difficult to climb into a moving bus.

(b)      with ‘go’

Examples:     She has decided to go to London by ship.

She goes to school on foot.

 

  1. Complete the passage given below using suitable prepositions.

……… The needless torture and pain inflicted (a) ……………….  these victims of science borders (b) ………………the diabolical. With mounting evidence (c)……………………… such callous and criminal cruelties to animals,there is a growing movement (d) …………………… animal lovers to oppose such indiscriminate slaughter. The monkey business started fifty years ago when a handful (e)……………………………… the animals were exported(f)………… medical research.

 

  1. Complete the passage given below using suitable prepositions.

……… Some people are lucky enough never to fall sick, but most (a)…………… us have to go (b)………………adoctor occasionally (c)……………  examination and treatment. Except in emergencies, it is customaryto make an appointment (d)……………. arriving at a doctor’s office. When a patient visits a doctor(e)……………… the first time, he or she is asked a number of questions (f)………… the doctor’sassistant, so that the doctor can have a complete medical history. This aids the doctor (g) ……………..making an accurate diagnosis. The assistant asks the patient (h) …………………… the symptoms he or shehas and (i)…………………..his previous illnesses or injuries he has suffered.

 

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. The following passages have not been edited. There is one error related to the use of preposition in each numbered line. Write the correct word against the incorrect word. Do not copy the whole passage.

                                                                             Incorrect               Correct

  1. Tsunami is a series in waves (a) ………………..    …………………..

generated in a body from water                (b) ………………..    …………………..

through an impulsive disturbance            (c) ………………..    …………………..

causing property damage and loss in life. (d) ………………..    …………………..

They are referred to by tidal waves.          (e) ………………..    …………………..

Waves act below the influence of gravity.  (f) ………………..     …………………..

 

                                                                             Incorrect              Correct

  1. The Metro Rail System is unique through (a) ……………….. …………………..

the whole world. People in Delhi and        (b) ………………..    …………………..

in neighbouring states will enjoy              (c) ………………..    …………………..

this unique railway facility.

The Metro station of Connaught Place      (d) ………………..    …………………..

is equivalent in the Victoria terminal       (e) ………………..    …………………..

of the well placed central London.            (f)  ………………..    …………………..

                                                                             Incorrect              Correct

  1. The problem in unemployment (a) ………………..    …………………..

of India is very serious.                            (b) ………………..    …………………..

For provide jobs to rapidly                       (c) ………………..    …………………..

increasing population is very difficult.

All the countries in the world are             (d) ………………..    …………………..

facing the same. From two crores are       (e) ………………..    …………………..

partly employed. They can be provided

opportunities before engage themselves    (f)  ………………..    …………………..

in spinning and handloom industries.

 

                                                                             Incorrect              Correct

  1. Environmental pollution has posed

a serious threat not only in man              (a)   ………………..  …………………..

but also among all living beings.              (b)   ………………..  …………………..

Poverty and population are the

worst polluters in environment.               (c)  ………………..   …………………..

During olden times needs were limited.    (d)  ………………..   …………………..

The increase of population and                (e)  ………………..   …………………..

fast development in cities are the             (f)  ………………..    …………………..

main culprit.

 

  1. Fill in the blanks with correct preposition.

Mohan distributed the sweets (a)………………Ram and Shyam. Shyam is fond   (b) …………………….sweets but Ram is not. Ram eats chocolates which are made (c) ………………. milk. He says thatchocolate is superior (d) ……………….  sweets. He is addicted (e)……………………… chocolate milk. Most of the boys prefer chocolate (f)………………………. sweets.

 

 

 

INTEGRATED GRAMMAR EXERCISES

TYPE : 1

Test type will include gap filling to test the knowledge in the following areas :

(i) Determiners (ii) Connectors (iii) Modals (iv) Prepositions (v) Subject-verb-concord

 

INSTRUCTIONS

In the following passages, choose the most appropriate option from the ones given below to complete the passage. Write the answers in your answer sheet against the correct blank number. Do not copy the whole passage.

 

  1. (a) _____ of our five sense organs (b) ______ in a perfect coordination with the other (c) ______ .

(a)      (i) every                 (ii) each                 (iii) most      (iv) much

(b)      (i) work                  (ii) worked             (iii) working (iv) works

(c)      (i) ones                  (ii) once                 (iii) one        (iv) one’s

 

  1. Jesus Christ was accused (a) _____ misleading the masses despite (b) ______ fact (c) ______ he was leading them from darkness towards light.

 

(a)      (i) of                      (ii) with                 (iii) from      (iv) in

(b)      (i) a                       (ii) the                   (iii) an         (iv) that

(c)      (i) this                   (ii) these                (iii) those     (iv) that

 

  1. It is (a) _____ important than anything else (b) ______ that we are a part of nature and not apart (c) ______ it.

 

(a)      (i) much                (ii) most                 (iii) many     (iv) more

(b)      (i) to remember      (ii) remember         (iii) remembering (iv) remembered (c) (i) of   (ii) from   (iii) in                    (iv) off

  1. The moment (a) _______ letter fell (b) _____ the mailbox, the postmaster (c) _______ to open it. It said : “God! (d) _______ the money that I asked for, only seventy pesos reached me. Send me the rest, (e) _________ I need it very much. But don’t send it to me through the mails (f) _____ the post office employees are a bunch of crooks.

 

(a)      (i) a                       (ii) his                   (iii) the        (iv) that

(b)      (i) into                   (ii) after                 (iii) in          (iv) under

(c)      (i) goes                  (ii) going                (iii) went      (iv) had gone

(d)      (i) with                  (ii) by                    (iii) of           (iv) to

(e)      (i) because             (ii) when                (iii) since     (iv) as

(f)       (i) as                     (ii) since                (iii) but        (iv) because

 

  1. A book worth (a) ______ is one which, (b) ______ read, (c) ______ auspiciousness to the reader. It (d) _______ be able to hold (e) ______ attention and be capable of (f) _______ expounded to others.

(a)      (i) read                  (ii) has been read   (iii) reading (iv) is being read

(b)      (i) then                  (ii) now                  (iii) when     (iv) where

(c)      (i) brought             (ii) bring                (iii) bringing          (iv) brings

(d)      (i) could                 (ii) may                  (iii) must      (iv) should

(e)      (i) its                     (ii) my                   (iii) his         (iv) their

(f)       (i) be                     (ii) becoming          (iii) being     (iv) been

 

TYPE : 2

 

Test type will include gap-filling to test the knowledge in using the words appropriately.

 

INSTRUCTIONS

 

          In the following passages, choose the most appropriate option from the ones given below to complete the passage. Write the answers in your answer sheet against the correct blank number. Do not copy the whole passage.

  1. Many animals are in (a) ______ of extinction unless (b) ______ efforts are made for their (c) ______ In India, the black buck is one of such (d) _______ animals. (e) ______ killing of animals (f) _______ our ecosystem adversely.

 

(a)      (i) dangerous         (ii) endanger          (iii) danger   (iv) dangerously

(b)      (i) special              (ii) specially           (iii) speciality (iv) specialize

(c)      (i) protect              (ii) protection         (iii) protective (iv) protecting

(d)      (i) deplete              (ii) depleting          (iii) depletion (iv) depeleted

(e)      (i) indiscriminate   (ii) discriminate

(iii)indiscriminately (iv) indiscrimination

(f)       (i) affect                 (ii) effect                (iii) effective           (iv) affects

 

  1. When my maternal uncle was alive, his only son (a) ______ made plans to settle in Germany with his wife. Without (b) ______ anyone, he bought tickets and sold all (c) ______ things at home.

 

(a)      (i) quiet                 (ii) quite                (iii) quietly   (iv) quieten

(b)      (i) inform               (ii) informing         (iii) information (iv) informative

(c)      (i) moving              (ii) movable            (iii) move      (iv) moved

 

  1. The bio-diesel has (a) ______ as a (b) ______ solution to the pollution (c) ______ by emission of smoke into the atmosphere by vehicles and (d) _______ establishments. It is nothing but used vegetable oil that has been tested (e) ______. It has made a vehicle called veggie Van which run more than 16000 kilometres without (f) _______ the environment.

 

(a)      (i) emerge              (ii) emerged           (iii) emerging         (iv) emerges

(b)      (i) usefully             (ii) usefulness        (iii) useful              (iv) used

(c)      (i) created              (ii) creating            (iii) creation                    (iv) create

(d)      (i) industry            (ii) industrious       (iii) industrialisation(iv) industrial

(e)      (i) satisfactory       (ii) satisfy              (iii) satisfactorily   (iv) satisfying

(f)       (i) harmed             (ii) harming           (iii) harmful                    (iv) harm

 

  1. There are (a) ______ 6,000 million people (b) ______ on our planet earth. The earth provides us with the air to (c) ______ , food to eat and water to drink. It (d) _______ us materials to build home and shelter (e) ______ for clothes, and it provides us with (f) _______ other things that we need to enjoy.

 

(a)      (i) more to              (ii) more than

(iii) many more than (iv) the most of

(b)      (i) living                 (ii) are living          (iii) lives      (iv) live

(c)      (i) breathes            (ii) breathe            (iii) breathed          (iv) breathing

(d)      (i) was giving         (ii) has given          (iii) gives      (iv) has been given

(e)      (i) so well as          (ii) so much so       (iii) as well as(iv) as good as

(f)       (i) much                (ii) more                (iii) many     (iv) most

 

  1. Most (a) ______ institutions excel at (b) ______ the (c) ______ skills of students and prepare them for (d) _______ success. Teachers too (e) ______ on nurturing the (f) _______ minds in the best way possible.

 

(a)      (i) education          (ii) educating         (iii) educationally (iv) educational

(b)      (i) development      (ii) developing

(iii)developed         (iv) being developed

(c)      (i) intelligency        (ii) intelligent         (iii) intellectual (iv) intellectually

(d)      (i) academically     (ii) academy           (iii) academical (iv) academic

(e)      (i) concentration    (ii) concentrate

(iii) concentrating (iv) concentrated

(f)       (i) youth’s              (ii) young’s             (iii) young    (iv) younger

 

TYPE-3

 

          Students are provided with a piece of conversation between two persons. The conversation is reported in a passage having four incomplete sentences. Students are required to complete the sentences in reported speech by providing their own responses. Each correct answer is worth one mark.

 

  1. Servant : Please give me leave for a week.

Master : Why do you need such a long leave?

Servant : I have to visit my village.

Master ; O.K. but don’t outstay your leave.

The servant requested his master (a) _______ for a week. The master asked him why (b) _______ such a long leave. At this, the servant said that he had to visit his village. The master acceded to his request but asked him (c) ______ leave.

 

  1. Beggar : Please give me some money.

Lady : Why don’t you do some work?

Begger : Madam, begging is also a work.

A Beggar requested a lady (a) _______. The lady asked him why (b) ______ some work. At this the beggar said (c) ______.

 

  1. John : Do you know swimming?

David : No, can you teach me how to swim?

John : Of course I can. Come to my place tomorrow at 5.00 p.m.

John asked David(a) _______. David replied in negative and asked him (b) ________ how to swim. John replied in affirmation and asked him (c) _______ the next day at 5.00 p.m.

 

  1. Principal : Why do you want a character certificate?

Student : Sir, I want to apply for a part time job.

Principal : Have you brought your progress report?

Student : No sir, I have not brought it.

The Principal asked the student (a) _________. The student replied respectfully (b) _________. The principal asked him further (c) _________. The student replied very respectfully saying that, he had not brought that.

 

TYPE-4

Test type will require the students to use the correct passive forms of the verbs by choosing the appropriate options from the given ones.

 

INSTRUCTIONS

Complete the following passages by choosing the correct passive forms of the verbs given in brackets from the alternatives given below the passage. Write only your answers in the answer sheet against the correct blank number.

  1. Yesterday a U.F.O. (a) ________ (see) in the western sky over Delhi. People
    (b) _______ (horrify) to see it and started running helter skelter. It was reported to have remained suspended in the air for some time. Then it picked up speed and (c) _______ (lose) to view.

 

(a)      (i) was seeing         (ii) was saw           (iii) was seen (iv) were seen

(b)      (i) was horrify

(ii) were horrified

(iii) were horrifying

(iv) was horrified

(c)      (i) was lost             (ii) had lost            (iii) was losing (iv) has lost

 

  1. Last week a picnic trip (a) ________ (organise) by our school for class-XI. The students (b) _______ (take) to Fun and Food village. Five buses (c) _______ (hire) on the occasion.

 

(a)      (i) organised          (ii) was organised

(iii) was organising (iv) had organised

(b)      (i) had taken          (ii) was taken         (iii) were taking (iv) were taken

(c)      (i) were hired         (ii) was hired         (iii) were hiring      (iv) had hired

 

  1. Gandhiji (a) ________ (know) for practising what he preached. Our country (b) _______ (teach) the lesson of truth and non-violence by him. Thus, it (c) _______ (bring) into the main-stream of freedom struggle under his leadership.

(a)      (i) was knowing      (ii) had known       (iii) was known (iv) were know (b)        (i) were taught                             (ii) was taught       (iii) is teaching (iv) had taught

(c)      (i) was brought      (ii) was being brought

(iii) had brought     (iv) was bringing

 

  1. Even the deepest wounds, that (a) ________ (give) over a long time by all the cruelties of the world (b) _______ (heal) by a few words of sympathy and love that (c) _______ (speak) by someone who is not apart from you but a part of you.

 

(a)      (i) has been given   (ii) have been giving

(iii) has been give   (iv) was giving

(b)      (i) is healed           (ii) are healed        (iii) will heal          (iv) was healing

(c)      (i) are spoken         (ii) is speaking       (iii) are speaking (iv) have spoken

 

TYPE : 5

 

Test type will require the students to attempt questions based on the following area of learning :

Filling in the blanks with suitable clauses to complete a dialogue

Complete the dialogue by filling up the blanks with the most appropriate options from those given.

 

  1. Abhay : Give me a book (a) _________

Kamal : I cannot give you any book today (b) _________

Abhay : Please tell me (c) _________

(a)      (i) it is very interesting

(ii) that is very interesting

(iii) which is very interesting?

(iv) who is very interesting?

 

(b)      (i) which is interesting.

(ii) that was interesting.

(iii) that had been interest

(iv) who is very interesting

 

(c)      (i) which can come

(ii) when to come.

(iii) when is coming

(iv) when it is coming

 

  1. Policeman: Where (a) _________

Rahul : I am coming from my office.

Policeman : Where (b) _________,

Rahul : I work in Nokia Care Centre No. 10.

Policeman : But, why (c) _________ late?

Rahul : Today there was a party in the office.

 

(a)      (i) from are you coming?

(ii) are you coming from?

(iii) where have you been coming from?

(iv) had you been coming from?

 

(b)      (i) you work

(ii) did you work

(iii) do you work

(iv) have you been working

 

(c)      (i) you should so

(ii) you may so

(iii) you will be so

(iv) are you so.

 

  1. Shweta : Will you tell me (a) _________?

Shubham : I wanted to tell you (b) _________

Shweta : In fact, I always wanted to drive a car (c) _________

 

(a)      (i) why have you sold that car

(ii) why you sold that car

(iii) where you are selling this car

(iv) why did you sell that car

 

(b)      (i) that it was very slow

(ii) if it is very slow

(iii) if it was very slow

(iv) that they were very slow

 

(c)      (i) which run faster than the winds

(ii) which runs faster than the winds

(iii) that it runs faster than the winds

(iv) which is running faster than the winds

 

  1. Vani : Congrats! Varun you have done very well in English.

Varun : Thank you very much.

Vani : Tell me (a) _________.  (b) _________.

Varun : Certainly yes, I studied from ABC English Centre.

Vani : I would like to know (c) _________

 

(a)      (i) why have you managed to score 98%

(ii) how you have managed to score 987.

(iii) how have you managed 98%

(iv) how come did you manage to score 98%

 

(b)      (i) Did you not take any class?

(ii) Where you took coaching?

(iii) Where are how did you take coaching?

(iv) Who guide you in coaching?

 

(c)      (i) what is your future plans

(ii) what will you plan in future

(iii) what are your future plans

(iv) how can you plan for your future

 

  1. Sonu : Have you ever visited Assam?

Monu : Yes, (a) _________

Sonu : Do you know (b) _________?

Monu : It is a beautiful place and it is very famous for tea.

Sonu : (c) _________?

 

(a)      (i) when I was very youngest

(ii) when I was very young

(iii) when I became very young

(iv) when I was youth

(b)      (i) What was it famous for?

(ii) Why was it famous for

(iii) what is it famous for

(iv) when is it famous for

(c)      (i) How you reached there

(ii) How could one reach there

(iii) How did you reach there

(iv) Do you know how to reach there.

 

  1. Niru : Anita, please tell me (a) _________.

Anita : I think (b) _________.

Niru : Okay, it will suit me but make sure (c) _________.

 

(a)      (i) how the house warming ceremony takes place?

(ii) what the house warming ceremony take place?

(iii) when the house warming ceremony will take place?

(iv) when will the house ceremony take place.

 

(b)      (i) how it will take place in the morning?

(ii) why it will take place in the morning?

(iii) that it will take place in the morning.

(iv) that it can take place in the morning.

 

(c)      (i) that I can accompany you.

(ii) that I accompany you.

(iii) how I can accompany you

(iv) that I am accompany you.

 

  1. Mother : Pankaj, why are you so late from school today?

Pankaj : I visited my friend today.

Mother : Your friend Deepa just called

Pankaj : Did you (a) _________

Mother : She wanted to know (b) _________

Pankaj : I had told her that (c) _________

 

(a)      (i) took any message from her?

(ii) take any message from her?

(iii) any message from her?

(iv) taken any message from her?

 

(b)      (i) whether you will be going to Radha’s birthday party.

(ii) whether will you be going to Radha’s birthday party.

(iii) whether shall you be going to Radha’s birthday party.

(iv) whether may you be going to Radha’s birthday party.

 

(c)      (i) I will confirm my programme on telephone.

(ii) I shall confirm my programme on telephone.

(iii) I would confirm my programme on telephone.

(iv) I must confirm my programme on telephone.

 

  1. Neha : Good morning, Tanu! (a) _________?

Tanu : Good morning Neha. I am coming from medical store.

Neha : I hope all is well. (b) _________ so early?

Tanu : I went there to bring some medicines for mother.

Neha : (c) _________? I hope it is not severe.

Tanu : She had a minor heart attack but now she is O.K.

 

(a)      (i) Why are you up to day

(ii) here you went away

(iii) where are you coming from

(iv) where do you come from

 

(b)      (i) how you went there

(ii) why you went there

(iii) why did you go there

(iv) how have you gone there

 

(c)      (i) What has happened to her

(ii) which has happened to her

(iii) why had it happened to her

(iv) how it happened to her.

 

Type : 6

 

Re-ordering of words/phrases into meaningful sentences

The words and phrases in the following sentences are jumbled up. Rearrange the words to make meaningful sentences.

 

  1. (a) the balcony / and / a beam / fell / of moonlight / on the bed / stepped over

(b) situation / on the floor, / the / considering / sat / up / I

(c) I / I / the money, / if / took / 10:30 express / catch / could / the /

Lucknow / to

 

  1. (a) down / the / again / dog / looked / at / I / little

(b) to / never / food / he / been / refuse / had / known

(c) right / at any / or / would / a / tackle / meal / hour / day / the / he / of

 

  1. (a) about / worth of / were / fifteen thousand / in the / jewels /

pounds / there / safe

(b) one by / if / one, / sold / expected / get / he / to / at least / five

thousand / he / them

(c) three / were / interesting / there / books / very / for sale / in the /

coming up / autumn

 

  1. (a) his / him / him / to / tried / and / reject / landlord / disliked

(b) Griffin / to / the / set / in / fire / revenge / house

(c) clothes / to / away / his / get / remove / without / had to / seen / he

/ being

 

  1. (a) ear / of / to / all / her / a sudden / a / Mrs. Hall / sniff / heard / close

(b) on the / the hat / a moment / bedpost / later / her / itself / into /

and / leapt up / dashed / face

(c) chair / then / alive / bedroom / the / became

 

Type – 7 Editing (Error Finding)

The following passage has not been edited. There is an error in each line against which a blank is given. Write the incorrect word and the correction in your answer sheet against the correct blank number as given in the example. Remember to underline the word that you have supplied.

 

  1. “So you want other day e.g. other – another

of”, shouted the office manager                     (a) ………………

on his clerk. I am anxious                            (b) ………………

to heard what excuse you have                     (c) ………………

now. You are gone for your                           (d) ………………

grandfather funeral twice                             (e) ………………

already.” The clerk smile sheepishly             (f) ………………

and said, “Today my grandmother is

getting married again.

 

  1. The concern in global warming e.g. in – over

is not that its happening but                        (a) ………………

that it’s been hastened by modern                (b) ………………

man. It is also occuring in a far                    (c) ………………

greater rate then the natural                        (d)………………

evolutionary process. We are cut                   (e) ………………

down trees, forcing an extinction of               (f) ………………

many species and polluting the

environment.

  1. Leena was in her annual visit e.g.    in            on

to her uncle house. She always                     (a) …………………….

enjoys it because she was allowed                (b) ………….. ………….

to spend much of the day                              (c) ………….. ………….

down under the mango grove. Leena’s           (d) ………….. ………….

uncle was a friendship of the man                (e) ………….. ………….

who owned the grove and he always gave a   (f) ………….. ………….

special rate.

  1. This year Reema’s aunt joined him, e.g.       him          her

but together they set up across the fields to the (a) ………….. ………….

grove. The branches of the trees is covered    (b) ………….. ………….

with fruits, and so bowing down                   (c) ………….. ………….

with the weightage that they almost             (d) ………….. ………….

touched the ground. They spend hours picking fruit, (e) ………….. ………….

eating many of it and sleeping in the shade.  (f) ………….. ………….

 

  1. There lived a wisely old man in Purkul, e.g.        wisely      wise Dehradun. The villagers looked up in him and                                    (a) ………….. ………….

approached him for all there problems. Three             (b) ………….. ………….

naughty boy : Amar, Naveen and Praveen want to (c) ………….. ………….

test the oldman’s wisdom, one finest morning (d) ………….. ………….

they caught a butterfly when playing            (e) ………….. ………….

in the garden. Amar has the butterfly in his (f) ………….. ………….

hand.

 

  1. Our school conducted a cultural e.g. conducted conducting

fiesta on the 26th in this month.                  (a)………….. ………….

The events for

competition includes music, dance               (b) ………….. ………….

and skit. Each school are requested to send (c) ………….. ………….

not more than fifteen participants. We

must appreciate if the students of                 (d) ………….. ………….

his prestigious institutions participate          (e)………….. ………….

in a competition and make our a                   (f) ………….. ………….

grand success.

 

Type :8 Editing (Omissions)

          In the following passage one word has been omitted in each line. Write the missing word along with the word that comes before and the word that comes after it in your answer sheet against the correct blank number. Ensure that the word that forms your answer is underlined. The first one has been done for you.

 

  1. Hilary Clinton is 67th U.S. Secretary of State. e.g. is the 67th

She embanked a career in law graduating from          (a) ………………

Yale Law School. She elected as Senator for               (b) ………………

NewYork state in 2000 Obama’s Secretary                  (c) ………………

of state. She is the former first lady                           (d) ………………

to serve in President’s Cabinet. As the Secretary        (e) ………………

she is responsible carrying out the                             (f) ………………

President’s foreign policies.

  1. Necessity, they say, is mother of invention e.g. is the mother

and Indian doctors quite creative when they cured     (a) ………………

hamstrung by few tools to perform specific                 (b) ………………

surgeries. They simply design themselves                   (c) ………………

at one fourth price they are sold abroad.                    (d) ………………

In fact, some their innovations are                             (e) ………………

priced at as much hundreds of dollars abroad.           (f) ………………

 

  1. A customer walked a bakery e,g, walked into a

and complained the bread he                                     (a) ………………

had bought previous day had                                     (b) ………………

too baking powder in it.                                             (c) ………………

The man at the counter told that                               (d) ………………

because they only served                                           (e) ………………

those people who to rise and shine.                            (f) ………………

 

  1. The fact that dance an art form is a e.g. dance is an

well-known fact. Although dance a                             (a) ………………

therapy is not known many. Dance therapy                (b) ………………

involves a synthesis of the grace and vigour               (c) ………………

Indian classical and folk dance movement into           (d) ………………

innovative and holistic therapy. It brings the inner     (e) ………………

feelings in the participants and can help them                           (f) ………………

develop a healthy personality.

 

  1. Avvaiyar was ninth century Tamil e.g. was a ninth

poet greatly revered for wisdom. She                          (a) ………………

travelled foot from place to place, spreading               (b) ………………

noble thoughts. One day, hungry tired with                (c) ………………

her travels sat under a tree to rest.                            (d) ………………

All of sudden, she heard a voice calling                      (e) ………………

out to her, “Patti, you want some fruits?”                   (f) ………………

 

  1. Meditation is a system, nor it is e.g. is not a

a part of organised religion. It                                    (a) ………………

does not even require God a reference point.                              (b) ………………

Because, the state self immersion, called                   (c) ………………

Bakhadi by the suffis, no object to focus on. Meditation (d) ………………

is pure metaphysics. Jani said, “Bekhadi is                (e) ………………

intoxication of the soul the inebriation of the soul.     (f) ………………

 

  1. There are several reasons a headache. e.g. reasons for a

Physical, emotional mental factors, anxiety                (a) ………………

and tension are few. Sometimes                                 (b) ………………

headache can a signal of an underlying                      (c) ………………

disease. More medicines, yoga therapy                       (d) ………………

eminently suits any need. Yoga a                               (e) ………………

comprehensive mode of culturing the body the mind. (f) ………………

 

  1. The aim of Gita is not to teach e.g. of the Gita

a theory as to enforce the practice dharma.                (a) ………………

Dharma is what promotes worldly prosperity,                            (b) ………………

spiritual freedom. Kurushetra called Tapakshetra,     (c) ………………

the field of penance discipline. War is                        (d) ………………

a punishment and cleaning mankind. God is a           (e) ………………

judge as well the redeemer. He destroys and                              (f) ………………

creates.

 

Solution

Section : C

Type : 1

  1. (a) (ii) each

(b) (i) work

(c) (i) ones

  1. (a) (i) of

(b) (ii) the

(c) (iv) that

  1. (a) (iv) more

(b) (i) to remember

(c) (ii) from

  1. (a) (iii) the

(b) (i) into

(c) (iii) went

(d) (iii) of

(e) (i) because

(f) (i) as

  1. (a) (ii) reading

(b) (iii) when

(c) (iv) bring

(d) (iv) should

(e) (iii) his

(f) (iii) being

 

Type : 2

 

  1. (a) (ii) danger

(b) (i) special

(c) (ii) protection

(d) (ii) depleting

(e) (i) indiscriminate

(f) (i) affect

  1. (a) (iii) quietly

(b) (ii) informing

(c) (ii) movable

  1. (a) (ii) emerged

(b) (iii) useful

(c) (i) created

(d) (iv) industrial

(e) (i) satisfactory

(f) (iv) harming

  1. (a) (ii) more than

(b) (i) living

(c) (ii) breathe

(d) (iii) gives

(e) (iii) as well as

(f) (iii) many

  1. (a) (iv) educational

(b) (ii) developing

(c) (iii) intellectual

(d) (iv) academic

(e) (ii) concentrate

(f) (iii) young

 

Type : 3

 

  1. (a) to give him leave

(b) he needed

(c) not to outstay

  1. (a) to give him some money

(b) he didn’t do any begging

(c) that begging was/is also a work.

  1. (a) if he knew swimming.

(b) if he could teach him.

(c) to come to his place.

  1. (a) why he wanted a character certificate.

(b) that he wanted to apply for a part time job.

(c) whether he had brought his progress report.

 

 

 

Type : 4

 

  1. (a) (iii) was seen

(b) (ii) were horrified.

(c) (i) was lost.

  1. (a) (ii) was organised.

(b) (iv) were taken.

(c) (i) were hired.

  1. (a) (iii) was known.

(b) (ii) was taught.

(c) (i) was brought.

  1. (a) (i) has been given.

(b) (i) is healed.

(c) (i) are spoken

 

Type : 5 Dialogue Completion

 

  1. (a) (iii) which is very interesting.

(b) (i) which is interesting

(c) (ii) when to come.

  1. (a) (ii) are you coming from.

(b) (iii) do you work.

(c) (iv) are you so.

  1. (a) (iv) why did you sell that car.

(b) (i) that it was very slow.

(c) (i) which run faster than the winds.

  1. (a) (iii) how have you managed 98%

(b) (i) did you not take any class.

(c) (iii) what are your future plans.

  1. (a) (ii) when I was very young.

(b) (iii) what is it famous for.

(c) (iv) Do you know how to reach there.

  1. (a) (iii) when the house warming ceremony will take place.

(b) (iii) that it will take place in the morning.

(c) (ii) that I accompany you.

 

  1. (a) (ii) take any message from her ?

(b) (i) whether you will be going to Radha‘’s birthday party.

(c) (iii) I would confirm my program on telephone.

  1. (a) (iii) where are you coming from.

(b) (iii) why did you go there.

(c) (i) What has happened to her.

 

Type : 6

 

  1. (a) A beam of moonlight fell on the bed and stepped over the balcony.

(b) I sat up on the floor, considering the situation.

(c) If I took the money I could catch the 10:30 express to Lucknow.

  1. (a) I looked down at the little dog again.

(b) He never had known to refuse food.

(c) If any hour of the day he would be right to take a meal.

  1. (a) There were jewels about fifteen thousand worth of pounds in safe.

(b) He expected to get at least five thousand if he add them one by one.

(c) There were three interesting books for sale coming up in the autumn.

  1. (a) His landlord disliked him and tried to reject him.

(b) Griffin set fire to the house in revenge

(c) He had to remove his clothes to get away without being seen.

  1. (a) All of sudden Mrs. Hall heard a sniff close to her ear.

(b) A moment later the hat on the bedpost leapt up and dashed itself into her face.

(c) Then the bedroom chair become alive.

 

Type : 7 Editing (Error Finding)

 

  1. (a) of – off

(b) on – at

(c) heard – hear

(d) are – have

(e) grandfather – grand father’s

(f) smile – smiled

  1. (a) its – it’s

(b) been – being

(c) in – at

(d) then – than

(e) cut – cutting

(f) an – the

  1. (a) uncle – uncle’s

(b) enjoys – enjoyed

(c) much – most

(d) under – in

(e) friendship – friend

(f) and – so

  1. (a) but – and

(b) is – are

(c) bowing – bowed

(d) weightage – weight

(e) fruit – fruits

(f) it – them

  1. (a) in – at

(b) there – their

(c) want – wanted

(d) finest – fine

(e) when – while

(f) has – had

  1. (a) in – of

(b) includes – include

(c) are – is

(d) must – will/shall

(e) his – your

(f) our – it

 

Type : 8 Editing (Omissions)

  1. (a) embanked for a

(b) she was elected

(c) state in 2000

(d) of the state

(e) in the president’s

(f) responsible for carrying

  1. (a) doctors are quite

(b) by a few

(c) design for themselves

(d) fourth of price

(e) some of their

(f) much as hundreds

  1. (a) complained that the

(b) bought the previous

(c) too much baking

(d) told him that

(e) that was because

(f) who have/want to

  1. (a) dance is a

(b) known to many

(c) vigour of Indian

(d) into an innovative

(e) and a holistic

(f) them to

  1. (a) for her wisdom

(b) travelled on foot

(c) hungry and tired

(d) travels she sat

(e) of a sudden

(f) Patti, do you

  1. (a) of an organised

(b) God for a

(c) state of self

(d) suffis, is no

(e) is an intoxication

(f) soul and the

  1. (a) emotional and mental

(b) are a few

(c) can be a

(d) medicines and/but yoga

(e) Yoga is a

(f) body and / with the mind

  1. (a) practice of dharma

(b) promotes the worldly

(c) kurukshetra also called

(d) penance and discipline

(e) cleaning of mankind

(f) well as the

 

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