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GRAMMAR-READING class 9

 

 

  1. Read the following passage and answer the following questions :

 

TV AND OBESITY

 

US nutrition experts have come to the conclusion that watching too much TV was one of the main reasons why children in USA were overweight.

 

Wilhelm Dietz, a nutrition scientist at the National Centre for the Prevention of chronic diseases in Atlanta, Georgia, said that tests carried out at several schools in Massachusetts and at a clinic in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania had shown clearly that children soon shed their excess pounds when they stopped spending so much time in front of the TV set.

 

The tests involved studying the eating and TV-watching habits of 1,295 schoolchildren in the sixth and seventh grades.  It was found that overweight children who reduced the time they spent watching TV by 20 hours per week, lost up to 20 per cent of their body weight in four months, and were able to maintain their new slimmer outline.

 

By comparison, another group of children who simply did more physical exercise during the same period lost only 13 per cent of their weight and after a degree of initial success, quickly put it back on again.

 

Presenting the results of the studies in New York, Wilhelm Dietz said that parents tended to underestimate the amount of time their children spent motionless in front of television sets, in many cases, they did not even know that their children were sitting chained to a TV programme at kindergarten or a friend’s house, for example. Pediatricians recommend that children should not watch TV for more than two hours per day.

 

“The more TV they watch, the more they tend to eat the things that are advertised on TV,” said Dietz. Unfortunately, it usually meant high-fat snacks, potato crisps or chocolate.

 

“The more TV children watch, the more lethargic they are,” said Dietz. He recommends that parents implement a kind of bonus strategy to encourage their children to adopt better habits, such as allowing them half an hour of TV for every hour they spend playing outdoors. And, said Dietz, on no account should they have a television set in their bedrooms.

 

 

  1. Excess TV viewing by children results in

(a) Overweight

(b) Intelligence

(c) Disease

(d) Success

 

  1. Effective weight loss can be achieved by

(a) Eating less

(b) Sleeping more

(c) Physical exercise

(d) Cut in TV viewing time

 

  1. According to paediatricians children should watch TV for

(a) More than two hours per day

(b) More than three hours per day

(c) Less than one hour per day

(d) Less than two hours per day

 

  1. Overweight children lost 20 per cent of their body weight in four months when they reduced the time they spent watching TV

(a) by 5 hours per week

(b) by 10 hours per week

(c) by 15 hours per week

(d) by 20 hours per week

 

  1. The National Centre for the presentation of chronic Diseases in Atlanta studied the eating and TV-watching habits of

(a) School children in the fourth and fifth grades

(b) School children in the sixth and seventh grades

(c) School children in the eighth and ninth grades

(d) School children in the ninth and tenth grades

 

  1. The more TV the children watch

(a) The more they learn

(b) The less they sleep

(c) The more they eat

(d) The less they think

 

  1. The word lethargic means
  2. a) energetic

(b) knowledgeable

(c) lazy

(d) smart

 

 

Read the following carefully and mark the option you consider most appropriate. 

 

RAIN ON THE ROOF

 

  1. When the humid shadows hover

Over all the starry spheres

And the melancholy darkness

Gently weeps in rainy tears,

 

  1. What a bliss to press the pillow

Of a cottage-chamber bed

And lie listening to the patter

Of the soft rain overhead!

Every tinkle on the shingles

 

  1. Has an echo in the heart;

And a thousand dreamy fancies

Into busy being start,

And a thousand recollections

Weave their air-threads into woof,

 

  1. As I listen to the patter

Of the rain upon the roof.

Now in memory comes my mother,

As she used in years agone,

To regard the darling dreamers

 

  1. Ere she left them till the dawn:

O! I feel her fond look on me

As I list to this refrain

Which is played upon the shingles

By the patter of the rain.

– Coates Kinney

 

  1. The dark wet shadows of clouds make the darkness look

(a) starry

(b) lovely

(c) melancholy

(d) fearful

 

  1. When it rains

(a)      The poet wants to play

(b)      The poet wants to sing

(c)      The poet wants to listen to the patter

(d)      The poet wants to sleep

 

  1. Every sound of rain on the shingles

(a)      Creates happiness in the heart

(b)      Creates sadness in the heart

(c)      Creates imagination in the heart

(d)      Creates an echo in his heart

 

  1. When the poet listens to the rain

(a)      He remembers his children

(b)      He remembers his mother

(c)      He remembers his dreams

(d)      He remembers his friends

 

  1. The word ‘ere’ in the stanza 3 means

(a ) dear

(b) foolish

(c) loving

(d) before

 

  1. As the poet listens to the refrain, he feels

(a) Pleasure

(b) the rain falling on him

(c) His mother’s presence

(d) he is dreaming

 

  1. The word ‘bliss’ in stanza 1 means

(a) blessing

(b) sadness

(c) great joy

(d) happiness

 

  1. Read the following carefully and mark the option you consider most appropriate.

 

WATER: LIFE’S MAIN SOURCE

 

Man does not live by food alone. Water is vital to human health and fitness. Although it is not a nutrient per se as are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals. It, in fact, is a key nutrient in as much as no life is possible without it. Whereas we can do for weeks without food, we cannot live without water longer than a couple of days.

 

Water approximates 60 per cent of the body weight of human adults. The total amount of water in a man weighing 70 kilograms is approximately a little over 40 litres. It is an excellent solvent – more substances are soluble in water than in any other liquid known so far. This makes it an ideal constituent of the body fluids which sustain life supporting chemical reactions. It dissolves varied products of digestion and transports them to the rest of the body. Likewise, it dissolves diverse metabolic wastes and helps drain them out of the body. Besides, it performs a variety of functions-some well known and well understood while others not so well appreciated yet vital. The no less important role of water is to distribute/dissipate the body heat efficiently, thereby regulating the body’s temperature. Water accomplishes this role ideally because it has thermal conductivity ensuring rapid heat from one part to the other.

 

Above all, water has a high-specific heat, implying that it takes a lot of heat to raise the temperature of water and likewise much heat must be lost to lower its temperature. Drinking a lot of water is an inexpensive way to stay healthy. Even excess of water is harmless. Water therapy-drinking a litre or so the first thing in the morning is kidney-friendly. The water regulation in the body is affected by hypothalamus in two ways i.e.,(i) by creating the sensation of thirst which makes us drink water and (ii) by controlling the excretion of water and urine. If water regulation fails, medical emergency ensues.

 

  1. Man cannot live for more than a couple of days

(a) Without food  (b) without water  (c) without oxygen  (d) without fruits

 

  1. Water is an excellent solvent because

(i)       It regulates excretion of urine

(ii)      It dissolves metabolic wastes

(iii)     It drains wastes out of body

(iv)     More substances are soluble in it than in any other liquid.

 

  1. The high thermal conductivity of water helps to

(i)       Dissolve food

(ii)      Dissolve metabolic wastes

(iii)     Regulate body temperature

(iv)     Sustain life supporting chemical reactions

 

  1. The total amount of water in a man weighing 70 kg is

(i)       Approximately 70 litres             (ii)      Approximately 60 litres

(iii)     Approximately 40 litres             (iv)     Approximately 50 litres

 

  1. High specific-heat of water means

(i)       It has high thermal conductivity

(ii)      It takes less heat to raise its temperature

(iii)     It takes more heat to raise its temperature

(iv)     It distributes the body heat efficiently

 

  1. Drinking a litre of water in the morning is called

(i)       Hypothalamus

(ii)      Water regulation

(iii)     kidney therapy

(iv)     water therapy

 

  1. The word ‘ ideal’ means

(i)       lazy

(ii)      most suitable

(iii)     valuable

(iv)     good

 

  1. Read the following carefully and mark the option you consider most appropriate. 

 

THE DREADED DRUGS

 

“DRUGS” the most dreaded things of today,

Which are gaining notoriety day by day

Taking drugs is injurious,

Because Man’s life is very precious.

Learn to say ‘NO’ to drugs,

Because they are more dangerous than bed bugs.

Life is precious to all,

So knowingly don’t cut it small.

It is like a rat’s trap,

Don’t indulge in the mishap

Drugs are life-takers.

It is the greatest enemy of mankind,

Which spoils the brain and mind.

Don’t try to have its taste,

Otherwise your life will be waste

So why depend on drugs alone?

Which makes a family mourn.

Don’t allow drugs to make your life dull,

As it brings your great failure

Don’t take it under peer pressure,

As it spoils your future.

Prevent yourself from preventing the blunder,

Which will make you only wander.

Then why let drugs spoil your precious life,

When you can willingly throw away your cigarette pipe.

 

On the basis of your reading of the poem choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

 

  1. Mark the wrong statement

(a) The use of drugs is increasing day by day

(b) Taking drugs is beneficial

(c) We must say ‘No’ to drugs

(d) Drugs are dangerous

 

  1. According to the poet, drugs are more dangerous than

(a) wild animals                                  (b) alcohol

(c) bed bugs                                        (d) enemies

 

  1. ‘No’ to drugs means

(a) yes to life                                       (b) no to life

(c) more to life                                    (d) right to life

 

 

  1. A word in the poem similar in meaning to ‘ evil image ‘ is

(a) injurious                                       (b) dangerous

(c) bed bugs                                        (d) notoriety

 

  1. Drugs make your life

(a) bright                                            (b) sad

(c) dull                                               (d) happy

 

  1. According to the poet , the greatest enemy of mankind is

(a) bed bugs                                        (b) alien

(c) pollution                                        (d) drugs

 

  1. One is tempted to take drugs because of

(a) curiosity                                        (b) money

(c) parents                                          (d) peer pressure

 

  1. Read the following passage carefully and mark the option you consider the most appropriate.

Language

 

Language is verbal presentation. Phonetic code of delivery makes rapid growth of culture, race, origin with modern age of technology causing reliable national growth. A new database for spoken English is being created at the Oxford University Phonetics Laboratory.

 

Professor John Coleman and his team are one of four teams to win the ‘Digging into Data’ competition set up to encourage imaginative, forward-thinking research using large-scale computing in Humanities.

 

The resulting database will contain a year’s worth of spoken English and the project mining a year of speech will create the world’s largest searchable database of spoken English Sound recordings.

 

It will be a useful resource for anyone interested in spoken English not just phoneticians and linguists, but also many other kinds of people such as teachers of English language, social historians, and interested members of the public.

 

Professor Coleman said, “In a world where there’s more multimedia than text, audio searching is becoming a vital technology, even Google is moving into it now. We will provide the data so that it is searchable, but we can’t even begin to imagine the full range of questions about language that people will want to use it for”

 

  1. A database enabling people to search for English sound recordings is being created by

(i)       Professor John Coleman

(ii)      Oxford University Phonetics Laboratory

(iii)     Google                   (iv)     Phoneticians

  1. Digging into data aims at

(i)       encouraging research

(ii)      collecting data

(iii)     making English easy

(iv)     promoting English as an international language

 

  1. The new database for spoken English will benefit

(i)       students and teachers

(ii)      the phoneticians

(iii)     linguists

(iv)     all of the above

 

  1. Reliable national growth is the result of

(i)       Spoken English

(ii)      computers

(iii)     the modern age of technology

(iv)     the work done by historians

 

  1. ‘Digging into Data’ competition has been won by

(i)       one team

(ii)      two teams

(iii)     Professor Coleman

(iv)     four teams

 

  1. The study of sounds of a language is called

(i)       Grammar

(ii)      Literature

(iii)     Etymology

(iv)     Phonetics

 

 

 

 

NOTICE

Value Point for Contents

Events

  • Who is the notice for
  • Date and time, venue
  • Additional information
  • (like chief guest, topic, ticket)

Meeting

  • Who is the notice for
  • Agenda

Lost and Found

  • Who is the notice for
  • Date, time, venue where object was lost/found
  • Contents (if any)

Tours and Camps

  • Contents (if any)
  • Who is the notice for
  • Duration
  • Accommodation
  • Whom to contact
  • purpose
  • any deadline (if required)
  • date, time, venue
  • destination
  • mode of travel
  • charges and last date for
  • registration, permission letter

Making an Appeal

  • who is the notice for
  • whom to contact,
  • where and when
  • what is urgently required,
  • how to send/give the requirement for whom and why

 

Sample Notice

Q.1

You are Damini Ratnam, President – Debating Society. A.P.S.Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi. Your society is going to organize an Inter-School English debate competition. Write a notice to announce the event and to invite students of the school (classes IX to XII) to form the audience.

 

Ans.

ARMY PUBLIC SCHOOL

Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi

NOTICE

20 November 2014

INTER SCHOOL ENGLISH DEBATE

Our society is organizing an Inter-school English debate competition on the
24th. Fifteen prestigious schools of Delhi are sending their teams to contest for the coveted running trophy.

Venue: Raiina Auditorium

Timings : 9 a.m. to 1p.m.

Students of senior classes (IX to XII) are cordially invited to attend.

Damini Ratnam

(DAMINI RATNAM)

President Debating Society.

 

 

Q.2.

You are Romit / Romita, CCA Captain of Students’ council of Sacred Heart School, Jamshedpur. The school has invited Prof. G.Sagar, an eminent Mathematician from I.I.T Kanpur to deliver a lecture on Vedic Mathematics for the students of XI & XII (Sc.) on the occasion of International year of Mathematics. Draft a  notice supplying suitable information and details of the programme within 50 words.

Ans. 

 

SACRED HEART SCHOOL, JAMSHEDPUR

 

NOTICE

 

14th September 2014

 

LECTURE ON VEDIC MATHEMATICS

 

All the Students of Class XI & XII (SC) are hereby informed that a  Lecture on Vedic Mathematics by Prof. G Sagar  from I.I.T Kanpur, is beingorganised by the School, on the occasion of International year of Mathematics on 28th September, at 9-am in the Library Hall. All are requested to be seated 15 minutes before the scheduled time. For more details contact the undersigned.

 

Romita

(ROMITA)

C.C.A Capt.

 

 

PRACTICE TASK

Write each of these notices in not more than 50 words.

 

  1. You are Mrs Arti Dua, Activity Incharge, of Great Field School. Write a notice asking the senior members of the Activity Club to attend a meeting to plan a fete that the school proposes to organize the following month.

 

  1. You are secretary, Blood Bank Society. Write a notice which you wish to put up in all the colleges in your city, Gandhi Nagar, asking for volunteers for blood donation. Give the necessary information.

 

  1. You are Ritika Seth, a student of ABC High School. You have lost your silver Timex watch in the playground. Write a notice describing the watch and giving other necessary details.

 

  1. You are Deepak Kumar, head of the Sports Cub in Prateek High School. Write a notice calling for a meeting of all class representatives to decide events and itinerary for the forthcoming Annual Sports Meet. Ask them to come prepared to give suggestions.

 

  1. You are Rashmi Sharma. You have found a large amount of foreign currency near the school bus stop. Write a notice informing your fellow students of the same and asking the claimant to approach you or the school office with details of the denominations of the lost money.

 

  1. Write a notice on behalf of the City Sports Centre, inviting participants for an Inter School Tennis Tournament. Give details of the trial matches to be held at City Sports Centre and the prize money to be awarded to the first three winners.

 

 

 

 

REPORTING AN EVENT

 

(Events and Experiences)

 

A Report is a factual description of an event or a happening. It may also give an analytical analysis of an event. A good report is always based on first-hand information about the incident/ event / happening. A reportcan be a lengthy document or a short piece of description, depending upon the nature of the report. There are many types of reports, but we will confine ourselves to newspaper reports describing events / incidents / happenings / functions and business reports.

 

Events / Functions

 

  • Name of the event
  • Situation / Occasion
  • Name of the Chief Guest / Name of the Person presiding over the function
  • Time, Date, Place
  • Gist of the Chief Guests’ speech
  • Description of the event / function
  • Something specific about the event/ function
  • Prize Distribution/ or any other ceremony performed by the Chief Guest
  • Thanks by one of the organisers
  • The writer’s analytical comment on the quality/ merit of the programme

 

Accidents

 

  • Cause of the accident
  • Where (Place)
  • When (appr. Time)
  • How (reason)
  • Vehicles involved in the accident
  • People’s help / Rescue and relief operation
  • Casualities if any
  • Persons injured
  • First aid
  • Inquiry by the government
  • Announcement by the government about grants to the next kin of the killed and the injured.
  • Analytical comments by the writer.

 

 

Format of a Formal Report

 

Heading

(By : Name, Designation)

Place, Date  :

 

Body of the Report:

  • Highlighting the subject / event
  • Contents of the report
  • Winding up the report, with recommendations and action to be taken.
  • Signature with Name and Designation.

Points to Remember

 

For Newsreport

  • Give a heading.
  • Be sure to include all relevant information.
  • Newspaper reports should have headline, date, place of origin of news, name of reporter.

Sample Report

Q.1.

As a TOI correspondent, write a short report on the inaugural function of JeevanRakshak Hospital and Heart Institute at DayanandVihar for your newspaper.

 

Hospital Inaugurated

TOI correspondent

 

New Delhi, June 5 :JeevanRakshak Hospital and Heart Institute, DayanandVihar was inaugurated by Mrs. Sheila Dikshit, the Chief Minister of Delhi, on Wednesday, June 7, 2006. The 200-bedded institute has been upgraded with the latest ultra-modern and top-of-the-line machines, besides enhanced infrastructure to support exigencies. Addressing the gathering, Dr.Dheer, the Medical Superintendent, expressed his satisfaction with the arrangements and facilities provided at the institute and reinforced the need for total commitment of the medical staff and the other employees towards their noble profession. Leaflets were distributed, highlighting a brief history of the institute, facilities and the treatment available therein. The Institute is constructed at the cost of Rs. 20.18 crores and is spread over an area of 9,120 sq. metres.

 

 

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. You are Kiran Malhotra, a staff reporter of The Hindustan Times’, Lucknow. You have witnessed a roadaccident involving a lorry and a Maruti Omni in Hazratganj, Lucknow. Write a report, giving the details of number of people injured and the extent of damage caused to the colliding vehicles in not more than 125 words for your newspaper.

 

  1. As the reporter of The Times of India’, New Delhi, write a report on the fire accident in the market-place, which you witnessed. You are Praveen/Parvathi. (Word limit: 125)

 

  1. Write a report as an eyewitness to the bus accident that occurred near B.M.C. Chowk, Ambala. Word Limit: 125 words.

 

  1. You are a newspaper correspondent who has been asked to cover ‘The Lifelong Friendship Campaign’ launched by the SOS Children’s Village on the occasion of its 40th year of service to needy children. Write a newspaper report on the campaign.

 

  1. Suppose you are a press reporter. You have come to an accident site to cover the news of a car accident in which three members of a family were killed. Write a newspaper report that you would like to file your editor.

 

 

STORY WRITING

 

Strategies for writing a story

 

  • In order to write a story keep the following points in mind
  • First create the outline of the story.
  • There are many ways to write a story but it should basically have the following elements :
  • Setting of the story
  • Characters – ensure that you give names to the main characters
  • Problem – the characters should encounter a problem but don’t make the

problem too complex to be solved.

  • Solution – the characters should find a solution to their problem
  • Reaction – would be how the characters feel once the problem has been solved.
  • This would generally be the conclusion of the story.
    • Avoid repetition of incidents and words. Do not stretch one point too far. Keep the story moving. The reader should be keen to read on.
    • Make the plot logical and realistic unless you have been asked to write a fantasy.
    • Keep in mind that grammatical accuracy and correct spellings are essential.
    • Avoid the use of slang and too much dialogue.
    • Use sequence markers to keep the plot cohesive.
    • Give the story a suitable title.
    • Word Limit : 120 words.

Sample Story Writing

 

Q.1.

 

Write a story about a brave dog.

 

Ans.

Sangeeta and Ramakrishnan’s family consisted of three children and adog. The oldest among the children was Dinakaran, a seven-year-old boy.The dog, Selvakumar, was yellow and scruffy. They had always livedalong the coast in a fishing village. It was just north of Pondicherry,a former French colony in South India. The morning of 26 December 2004began like most others, with sunny skies and a very cool breeze.Sangeeta’s husband, Ramakrishnan, had just returned from his earlymorning fishing. Suddenly, they heard a strange noise comingfrom the sea. Ramakrishnan went to have a look. He ran up to theroof and saw the waves. He shouted down to Sangeta. “There’s no time; run away, run with the children!”That’s when Sangeeta made her agonizing choice. She couldn’t carry all three children.“Dinakaran is somewhat older than the other two. I knew he would be able to run, so I grabbed the other two and asked him to run too,” Sangeeta explained later. However, Dinakaran ran towards the family hut. It was then that the dog ducked into the hut. Nipping and nudging, he carried Dinakaran up the hill to safety. Dinakaran says the dog saved his life.

 

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Build a story based on the following outline.
  2. Bag lost in a train by a traveller
  3. Bag found by an attendant
  4. Attendant rewarded

 

  1. Write a story that illustrates the expression ‘Look before you leap’.

 

  1. Use the hints given below to develop a dramatic story of a boy who made it big in his life. Use at least two characters and include dialogues to make your story interesting and natural.

A poor boy – distributed newspapers to earn money to support his family – got some money as wages and a newspaper everyday – learnt to read newspapers – employer got him admitted to an informal school – good at studies – after school went to college – topped civil services examinations – very happy – grateful to employer and benefactor and teachers – Deputy Commissioner of his own district.

 

  1. Here is the beginning of a story of Misha, a ten-year-old girl. Develop the story in any way you like but make sure that it has a middle and an end. Do include at least two characters and some dialogues to make the story interesting and authentic.

The sound of the school bell signalling the end of the day was music to all children but not Misha, a quiet ten-year-old girl. She hated leaving school…

 

 

 

FORMAL LETTERS

 

Letters to government officials, business houses, customers, editors, colleagues and acquaintances fall under the category of formal letters. As the term itself indicates, a formal letter is written in a formal style i.e. the language and tone of the letter as formal, impersonal or objective, therefore, no informal expressions, greetings or contracted forms of words are used. The language is straight forward and to the point. It may be strongly worded if need be but never impolite. You will find the following guidelines helpful in writing formal letters.

 

To the Officials   :       Begin by introducing yourself. Then clearly state the purpose of      writing.

Give details of what you want to do or want to be done e.g.                              applying for a newelectricity connection.

Make a request for appropriate/necessary action.

 

To the Editors    :       You may begin with a reference to recent developments, new

events etc.

Establish a context for writing.

Give details of the topic e.g. the problem of beggary, its causes                                          and effects andpossible solution.

Do not ask the Editor to solve your problems. He can only give voice to your views, concerns, complaints, suggestions, criticism, appreciation. He may also be approache for complaints against erring offiials, departments, business houses etc.

 

To Boss &          :       Show due respect but do not flatter.

Colleagues                 Clearly state the purpose of writing e.g. asking for a raise,                                 seeking action on aproposalor promise, making enquiries etc.

 

Acquaintances   :       Use polite language and pleasant tone.

Always be very polite (even if you have to complain).

 

To Business       :       Keep the tone friendly and pleasant.

Houses                       Do quote reference numbers, order numbers, cheque / demand

Customers                 draft numbers, filenumbers, code or ID numbers etc.

Convey your message in a brief and straight forward manner.

Give more importance to the reader.

 

We write formal letters to:

  • job applications.
  • get our problems addressed/seek redressal to them
  • inform others
  • persuade others
  • express our views on public issues.
  • appeal to others
  • warn someone
  • complain against someone
  • make enquiries.
  • send replies.
  • book/supply orders
  • send /ask for payments/discounts/brochures of information etc.
  • sell products.

Points to Remember

 

  • In Formal Letters there should be no use of informal expressions, greetings or contracted forms of words.
  • Language is straightforward and to the point.
  • It may be strongly worded if required but never impolite.
  • The heading includes the writer’s address and date. These are written at the top left hand corner of the letter.
  • The date should be written below the address.
  • Name/Designation and complete address of the recipient s written below the date line from the left side margin.
  • The salutation is written just below the date with a double space separating the two. Its choice depends upon the relation and intimacy the writer has with the addressee. For Professional Persons: Dear/Respected Sir/ Ma’am
  • The complimentary close/ subscription is a polite way of ending a letter. The expression used must match the salutation.
  • The signature is written just below the subscription.
  • Word limit : 120-150 words.

Common Mistakes Usually Made by the Students

 

  • Writer’s address should precede the receiver’s address.
  • The editor should not be asked to solve your problems. He can only give voice to your views, concerns, complaints, suggestions, criticism and appreciation.
  • Show due respect but do not flatter.
  • Do not be disrespectful; always be very polite (even if you have to complain).
  • Do not forget to offer plausible suggestions to the problem.

 

 

Format:

 

OWN ADDRESS

_______________________________

_______________________________

 

DATE

 

RECEIVER’S ADDRESS

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

 

SALUTATION (RESPECTED SIR/SIR)

 

SUB:

 

CONTENT-   1ST PARA- INTRODUCTION

2ND PARA- EXPANSION

3RD PARA- SUMMARISE

4TH PARA- CONCLUSION

 

COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE

SUBSCRIPTION

SIGNATURE

FULL NAME

 

 

Sample Letter

 

Q.1.   Write a letter to the editor expressing your views on the growing corruption levels in the country. Also mention the ways by which this growing menace can be tackled.

 

L-119

Scc-56 Gurgaon

Haryana

 

29th October 2014

 

The Editor

The Times of India

Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg

New -Delhi-110048

 

 

Sir

 

Subject : Growing Corruption Levels in the Country

 

Through the columns of your esteemed daily, I would like to draw your kind attention to the growing cases of corruption in our country. It would not be wrong to say that corruption has seeped into the very fabric of our society.

 

Every day we hear politicians taking bribe or scams being unearthed by the media. It is sad to witness the tremendous strides our country has taken and the shallowness of our system. As a responsible citizen of the country myself, I feel some of us are completely unaffected by the state of affairs going on in our country, whether it is the CWG lapses or the 2G scam.

 

In order to bring a change in the system I sincerely feel that the Government should take stricter actions against the perpetrators of law and punish them severely. People should raise their voice against loopholes in the system. There should be public forums, symposiums organized where we can express our opinions. It is really the need of the hour and hope some prompt action shall be taken for the same.

 

Thanking you

 

Yours sincerely

Abhinav Sharma

 

 

Q.2.   You are Sunil Shetty of 7, Club Road, Hyderabad-13. Write a letter to the Editor of The Hyderabad Times, P.O. Box 350 Hyderabad-1, about the bad quality and inadequate supply of tap water in your locality.

 

7, Club Road

Hyderabad

 

12 November 2014

 

The Editor

The Hyderabad Times

P.O. Box 350

Hyderabad

 

 

Sir

 

Subject: Inadequate Supply of Water

 

Through the columns of your newspaper, I would like to draw the attention of the civic authorities to the bad quality and inadequate supply of tap water in our locality.

 

It is unfortunate that the civic authorities do not take care to provide the citizens with even the basic amenities such as proper and adequate water supply. In our locality, water is supplied only for an hour in the morning. For the rest of the day, the taps remain dry. Also, the quality of water supplied is unhygienic. There have been some cases of diarrhea and dysentery. It is feared that these diseases may break out in an epidemic form if the quality of water is not improved.

 

It is hoped that instead of ignoring the matter, the authorities concerned will take immediate steps to ensure adequate supply of good quality tap water in our locality.

 

 

Yours faithfully

Sunil Shetty

PRACTICE QUESTIONS`

 

  1. Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper appealing to the general public for contribution to the Chief Minister’s Drought Relief Fund. (Word Limit: 120 words).

 

  1. Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper expressing your disapproval of the so called inaugural functions which cause so much national waste. Give instances of such waste from your observation.

 

  1. Suppose you are an educationist and feel strongly about the flaws in the existing system of examination. You feel that the system neglects the talents and skills of students and is restricted to classroom teaching. Write a letter to the editor of an English newspaper making a case for education beyond classroom teaching. Sign yourself as Dr. Manoj Lamba.

 

  1. Write a letter to the Editor of the daily, “The Tribune”, about rash and reckless driving, suggesting preventive measures. You are Navin/Neha living at B-47, Friends Colony, and New Delhi.

 

  1. Last year a fifty-year old man died of cardiac arrest while taking a ride on a swing in an amusement park. Write a letter to the Editor suggesting some safety measures which park owners must observe before issuing tickets. You are Parul/Parijat, living at 15, Subhash Nagar, Jaipur.

 

 

 

 

CONNECTORS (CONJUNCTIONS)

 

Connectors are words used to join words, phrases and clauses. They can be divided into the following classes:(i) Relative Pronouns and Relative Adverbs (ii) Conjunctions (iii) Prepositions

 

Conjunctions

 

Conjunction is a word that merely joins two words or two sentences. It performs no other function. Conjunctions can be divided into the following three classes:

 

(i) Coordinating Conjunctions:(and, but, for, or, still, yet, so, otherwise, nor, neither, either, as well as, etc.) They join the same type of grammatical units e.g. noun with noun, adjective with adjective, phrase with phrase and clause with clause.

 

Many men and women came to see the fair.

I wrote to him, but he did not reply.

His condition became had, so he was taken to hospital.

You should hire a taxi,otherwise youwill not reach in time.

 

They are usedto form Compound Sentences.

 

(ii) Correlative Conjunctions (Conjunctions used in pairs):

Both …………..and :

He is both rich and generous.

 

Either ……… or :

Either eat or place it in the fridge.

 

Neither ……………… nor :

He can neither read nor write.

 

Not only ……………… but also :

He not only smokes but drinks also.

 

Though …………..yet :

Though he is rich, yet he is not happy.

 

So ……………..that :

He spoke so loudly that everyone was surprised.

 

Hardly ……………… when :

Hardly had be gone out when it started raining.

Whether …………. or :

I do not care whether he attends the function or not.

 

No sooner ………………….Than.

No sooner did I reach the station than the train started.

 

(iii) Subordinating Conjunctions: (though/although, since, after, till/until, as,

because, before, if, while, when, whether, lest, as if, as soon as, as long as, as

though, than, etc.)

 

They join a Subordinate Clause to a Principal Clause and help in the formation of Complex sentences.

 

Stay here tillI come back.

He came sooner than we expected.

He left the room as you entered.

You will be punished if you don’t mend your ways.

 

Subordinating conjunctions can also be placed in beginning of the sentence:

 

Though he is ill, he attended the meeting.

Use of Some Important Conjunctions:

 

And, as well as, not only, but also are used to join two or more words, phrases orclauses of the same nature of rank.

 

She went to the market and bought a saree.

Ravi andNeeraj are my cousins.

 

Ravi as well as his brother is guilty.

He was not only fined but also degraded.

 

(With as well as, the verb agrees with the first subject)

 

But, still, yet, express contrast between two statements. These are used to join such statements or clauses that oppose each other in thought.

 

He is poor, but contented.

He is eighty still he is strong.

He worked hard, yet failed.

 

Nevertheless also expresses the same sense.

 

He was tired, nevertheless he went on working.

 

Though, although, yet also express contrast or concession.

 

Although it was very cold, he went out without a coat.

Though he is very poor, yet he is always neatly dressed.

Though/Although is never followed by ‘but’

 

Or, either, nor, neither express a choice / alternative between two things.

 

I shall see you tomorrow or the day alter.

Eitherhe or his brother did it.

 

Neithernor’ means ‘not one, not the other’.

 

He was neitherfined nor warned.

If there are two subjects, the verb agrees with the second subject.

 

Otherwise also expresses an alternative between two things.

 

Never be absent otherwise you will be dismissed.

 

For, therefore, so express inference.

 

He was found guilty, therefore, he was punished.

There must be someone on the roof, for I hearfootsteps.

He did not study properly, so he failed.

 

as, since, because, for express cause or reason.

 

I did not go to schoolas I was ill.

We will certainly help you since you are ourfriend.

The baby is crying because it is hungry.

I must leave now for the sun is about to set.

 

‘As’ also expresses manner.

 

As you sow, so shall you reap.

Do as you are told.

 

after, before, when, while, till/until, since, for, as soon as, so/as long as, etc.

express time.

 

‘While’ is used to join two actions going on at the same time.

Strike the iron while it is hot.

 

‘While’ also expresses contrast.

 

Some people waste food while others haven’tenough to eat.

 

‘Since’ is preceded by a verb in the Simple Present or in the Perfect Tenses. It is followed by a verb in the Simple Past Tense.

 

It is a month since he went away.

She has been ill since she came here.

 

‘Until/unless’ are not followed by a negative verb.

 

I shall stay here until you come.

You will not succeed unless you work hard.

 

‘Unless’means ‘if not’.

 

‘So long as’ and ‘as long as’ denote time during which a certain action takes place.

 

As long as there is life, there is hope.

 

Where, wherever denote place.

 

He makes friends wherever he goes.

 

As far as, however express extent, ‘however’ precedes some adjective/adverb.

 

He is an honest man as far as I know.

However hard you may try, you cannot succeed.

 

that, so that, in order that, lest express purpose  or effect/result.

 

He is working hard that/so that he may pass.

I am so tired that I cannot walk.

Take care lest you should fall down.

We travelled by car in order that we might reachin time.

 

‘Lest’ is always followed by should.

 

if, unless, whether, provided that, in case express condition.

 

I will read the book if I get it.

You can sit here provided that you keep quiet.

I shall go there whether you like it or not.

 

‘than’expresses comparison.

 

He worked harder than I expected.

howexpresses manner.

You will never know how he got so much wealth.

 

Hardly, scarcely are followed by when.

 

Hardly had I reached the station, when the trainstarted.

I am so tired that I can hardly stand.

He was scarcely five years old when his motherdied.

 

No sooner……….than is used in the sense of as soon as. Itis always followed by ‘than’ and never by ‘but’.

 

No sooner did he reach the station, than the train left.

 

 

PASSIVE VOICE

Definition :

          Voice refers to the form of the verb that indicates whether the doer of an action is the subject or object. A sentence can be the expressed either in active voice or in passive voice.

 

The verbs that take an object can be used in the Passive Voice. In Active Voice, the primary focus is on the subject while the object is in focus in the Passive Voice.

 

Rules for changing into Passive Voice.

 

(a)      The ‘object’ of the verb in the Active Voice becomes the ‘subject’ of the verb in the Passive Voice and the ‘subject’ in the Active Voice becomes the ‘object’ in the ‘Passive Voice’.

(b)      The main verb is changed into the Past Participle. The third form of the verb and an appropriate form of the helping verb   according to the ‘Tense’ of the sentence is used.

(c)      The ‘subject’ in the Active Voice’ becomes the ‘object’ in the Passive Voice and the word ‘by’ is generally placed before the object.

 

Tense Voice Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous
Present Active He reads a book. He is reading a book. He has read a book. He has been reading a book.
  Passive A book is read by him. A book is being read by him. A book has been read by him. No passive
Past Active He read a book. He was reading a book. He had read a book. He had been reading a book.
  Passive A book was read by him. A book was being read by him. A book had been read by him. No passive
Future Active He will read a book. He will be reading a book. He will have read a book. He will have been reading a book.
  Passive A book will be read by him. No passive A book will have been read by him. No passive

 

Note :

  1. By + agent

This construction is used only when the agent is definite and important,

(i)    William Shakespeare wrote ‘Merchant of Venice’.

‘Merchant of Venice’ was written by William Shakespeare,

(ii)    Mohan reads a poem.

A poem is read by Mohan,

(iii)    My mother cooks food.

Food is cooked by my mother.

  1. Without ‘by’ + agent

‘by’ + agent is not used when the agent is vague.

(i)    Someone broke the window.

The window was broken.(by someone)

(ii)   People call him a rogue.

He is called a rogue. (by the people)

 

  1. The Nominative case of the pronoun is changed into the objective case.
    For
    example

          He      —       him

She    —       her

I        —       me

We     —       us

They   —       Them

You    —       You

it       —       it

 

  1. If a Transitive Verb has two objects, either of them may be made the subject in the Passive Voice and the other remains unchanged.

     He gave me a book.

I was given a book by him.

Or

A book was given to me by him.

 

Interchange of Active/Passive Voice

Tense Active Passive Passive
Simple present Sub. + 1st form of the verb + s/es + obj.

Sub. + do not/does not + 1st form of the verb + obj.

Do/does + sub.+ 1st form of the verb + obj.?

Obj. + is/am/are + 3rd form of the verb + by + sub.

Obj. + is/am/are + not + 3rdform of the verb + by + sub.

Is/are/am + obj. + 3rd form of the verb + by + subj.?

Present Continuous

Tense

Sub. + is/are/am + 1st form of verb + ing.

Sub. + is/are/am+  not + 1st form of the verb + ing + obj.

Is/are/am + sub.+ 1st form of the verb + ing + obj.?

Obj. + is/am/are + being + 3rd form of verb + by + sub.

Obj. + is/am/are + not + being + 3rdform of the verb +  sub.

Is/are/am + obj. + being + 3rd form of the verb + by + subj.?

Present Perfect Tense Sub. + has/have + 3rd form of the verb + obj.

Sub. + has/have + not + 3rd form of the verb + obj.

Has/have + sub. + 3rdform of the verb + obj.?

Obj. + has been/have been/ + 3rd form of the verb + by + sub.

Obj. + has/have + not + been + 3rd form of the verb + by + sub.

Has/have + obj. + been +  3rd form of the verb + by + subj.?

Past Indefinite Tense Sub. + 2ndform of the verb + obj.

Sub. + did not + 1st form of the verb + obj.

Do + sub. + 1st form of the verb + obj.?

Obj. + was/were + 3rd form of the verb + by + sub.

Obj. + was/were + not + 3rdform of the verb + by + sub.

Was/were + obj. + 3rd form of the verb + by + subj.?

Past Continuous Tense Sub. + was/were + 1st form of the verb + ing

Sub. + was/were + not + 1st form of the verb + ing + obj.

Was/were + sub. + 1st form of the verb + ing + obj.?

Obj. + was/were + being +
3rd form of the verb + by + sub.?

Obj. + was/were +not + being + 3rdform of the verb + by + sub.

Was/were + obj. + being + 3rd form of verb + by + subj.?

Past Perfect Tense Sub. + had + 3rdform of the verb + obj.

Sub. + had + not +3rdform of the verb + obj.

Had + sub. + 3rdform of the verb + obj.

Obj. + had been +3rd form of the verb + by + sub.

Obj. + had not been + 3rdform of the verb + by + sub.

Had + obj. + been + 3rd form of the verb + by + subj.?

Simple Future Tense Sub + will/shall + obj. Obj. + shall/will + have +

3rd form of verb + by + sub.

Future Perfect Tense Sub + will/shall + have + 3rd form of verb + Obj. Obj. + will/shall + have been + 3rd form of verb + sub.
Imperative Sentences 1st form of the verb + obj.

1st form of the verb + obj.

Let + obj. + be + 3rd form of the verb

Obj. + should be + 3rd form of the verb

Modals Will/shall/should/must/can/could/

ought/may, etc. + 1st form of the verb + obj.

Obj. + Modal + be + 3rdform of verb + by + sub.

 

 

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

          Given below are some instructions. Use them to complete the paragraphs that follow. Write the correct answers in the space provided. Do not copy the whole sentence.

  1. How to make nutritious chapatti rolls?

Ingredients :

Chapatis (made from wheat flour) – 3

Chopped boiled vegetables – ¼ cup

Cooked sprouts – ¼ cup

Boiled chopped spinach – 1 tbsp

Ginger and garlic chopped – ¼ tbsp.

Chat masala – ½ tsp

Ghee or oil – 2 tsp

Butter – 1 tbsp

Salt and pepper powder to taste

 

Method

Heat butter, add vegetables, sprouts, ginger, garlic and spinach. Stir for a minute.

Add masala, salt and pepper.

Sprinkle wheat flour and mix well. Cool.

Roll a chapatti and semi roast it. Don’t roast it too crisp.

Spread 1 tbsp filling across the chapatti. Fold ends so that the filling doesn’t ooze

out.

Roll the chapatti and place it on a warm griddle.

Roast in a little ghee till it turns golden.

Prepare as many chapattis this way as you need.

Serve hot with some ketchup.

 

  1. First of all, (a) ………………………. and a mixture of vegetables, sprouts, ginger, garlic and spinach (b) …………………… for a minute. Next masala, salt and pepper are added and (c) ……………. well. This mixture is allowed to cool. Now a chapatti (d) ……………… taking care not to roast it too crisp. When it is ready, one tablespoon of (e) ……………… across it and its (f) ………………..so that the filling does not ooze out. The chapatti (g) …………………..on a warm griddle after which (h) ……………… in a little ghee till it turns golden. This way as many cahapatis (i) ……………….. These chapattis are best (j) …………………….. ketchup.

 

  1. How to make chocolate brownie?

Ingredients :

340 g dark cooking chocolate

110 g unsalted butter

100 g flour

¼ tsp salt

½ tsp baking powder

3 eggs

200 g sugar

¾ tsp vanilla essence

50 g walnuts, chopped

 

Method :

 

Melt the chocolate and butter in a double boiler until smooth.

Sift the flour, salt and baking powder together. Set aside.

Blend the eggs and sugar together and add the vanilla essence.

Add the melted chocolate and butter to the eggs and sugar mixture and combine

well. Fold in the flour and the baking powder mixture.

Add the walnuts and pour the batter into a greased tin. Bake at 180ºC for 35 to

40 minutes.

 

Allow to cool before cutting into squares and serving.

 

Here is how delicious brownies filled with the goodness of dark chocolate and crunch of walnuts can be made at home. First of all, the chocolate and butter (a) ………… until they are smooth.Meanwhile the flour, salt and baking powder (b) ………………… aside.Next, the eggs and sugar (c) ………………..added. Now the melted chocolate and butter (d) …………………. well. The flour and the baking powder mixture are folded to prepare batter. At this stage, the walnuts (e) ………………..and baked at 180ºC for 35 to 40 minutes. When cool, neat square brownies (f) ……………….. with a scoop of ice and a cup of coffee.

 

  1. How to inflate balloons with yeast breath?

Take the top off a bottle of cola and allow it to go flat overnight.

Blow up a balloon and then deflate it to soften it.

Put a teaspoon of dried yeast into the cola bottle and shake the contents.

Stretch the balloon over the mouth of the bottle and place it in a warm spot.

The yeast feeds on the sugar in the cola.

As it feeds, it breathes releasing carbon dioxide, which inflates the balloon.

Ever wondered that a balloon can be inflated with the help of yeast? Well, it can be. Here is how it is done. First of all (a) ……………………. Its top (b) ………………. and the drink (c) …………………..flat overnight. Next day a balloon (d) …………… and then deflated to soften it. Now a teaspoon of (e) ……………. the cola bottle and (f) ………………….. The yeast starts feeding on the cola and as it feeds, carbon dioxide (g) ………………… its breath. That is how (h) ……………… Interesting, isn’t it?

 

Read the sentences given below and complete the paragraph that follow.

  1. (a) The British established the East India Company.

(b)      They ruined the business of the artisan.

(c)      They took advantage of the rivalries.

(d)      The British officers levied heavy taxes.

The East India Company was established by the British. The business (a)…………….by them. The rivalries (b) ……………(c) ……………… by the British officers.

 

  1. (a) Stephen offered Firdaus Kanga a cup of tea.

(b)      He then showed him his garden.

(c)      Firdaus touched his shoulder while leaving.

Firdaus Kanga visited Stephen’s house. Firdaus (a)…………Stephen.His garden (b)…………….. .      (c)…………………..

 

  1. (a) Rakesh has written a beautiful poem.

(b)      His teacher has appreciated him.

(c)      She shall award him the first prize.

A beautiful poem (a) ………………… . (b) …………………. .his teacher. The first prize (c)………….. .

 

  1. (a) We should not use polybags.

(b)      They choke the drains and sewage.

(c)      They kill the animals also.

Polybags are considered to be one of the most harmful elements. Polybags (a) ……………….. . Drains and sewage (b) …………………Also (c)……………………… .

 

  1. TomorrowKartik will celebrate his birthday. He shall invite all his friends. He has arranged a sumptuous dinner. Also he has arranged a dance party.

Since tomorrow is Kartik’s birthday, all his friends (a)  ………………A sumptuous dinner (b) …………………. Also a dance party (c) ……………………

 

  1. (a)   Stray animals cause a great nuisance.

(b)      The stray animals cause traffic jams.

(c)      They spill the garbage from the dustbins. They cause unhygienic         conditions also.

A great nuisance (a)        …………………. by stray animals. Traffic jams (b) ………………..          Garbage (c)…………………..thus unhygienic conditions are caused by them.

 

  1. (a) Domestic servant has robbed an aged lady.

(b)      He had laced her snacks with sedatives.

(c)      He ransacked the house and looted the jewellery.

An aged lady (a) …………………….Her snacks (b) ………………………The house (c)………………

 

  1. Mark Antony delivered a speech on the funeral of Julius Caesar. He won sympathies of the crowd. He successfully instigated the people of Rome.

On the funeral of Julius Caesar, a speech (a) ………………… (b) ………………..by him. Thus, the people of Rome (c) …………………

 

  1. Fill in the blanks using the passive form of the verbs given in the bracket:

On this day, the World Hockey Association (a) …………………. (be) officially (b) …………………….    (form). The Professional Ice Hockey league (c)…………………….. (make) up of 12 teams and (d) …………………… (consider) the National Hockey League’s  main  competitor. The WHA (e) ……………..    (establish)  by Dennis  Murphy.

 

 

  1. Rewrite the following paragraph changing the voice of the underlined verbs:

ABC Public School celebrated Van Mahotsava with great pomp and show. The Chief Minister of Delhiinaugurated the function.

He gave certificates to the meritorious students.

 

  1. Change the voice of given sentences.

(i)       Ram did not help his friends.

(ii)      Mohan gave him a book.

(iii)     When did he give the book?

(iv)     Mohan is teaching English nowadays.

(v)      Why did he punish Mohan?

(vi)     Did he steal your pen?

(vii)    Have they been rewarded by the authorities?

(viii)   I saw him playing with them.

(ix)     Mohan cannot decide this case.

(x)      Help them.

 

 

DETERMINERS

 

Determiners are words that are used before nouns to determine or fix their meaning. These can be divided into the following kinds : (i) Articles : a, an, the ; (ii) Demonstratives : this, that, these, those; (iii) Possessives : my, your, our, his, her, its, their; (iv) Indefinite Adjectives : some, any, much, many, little, few, less ; (v) Others : all, each every, both, neither, either, another, other, enough, most, several one, two etc. first, second, etc. 

 

ARTICLES

‘A’ and ‘An’ are two forms of a single article called indefinite article. As a determiner they indicate the coming of a noun after it. Since it denotes ‘one’ it is used before Singular Countable Noun.

‘a’ is used:

  • before a singular, countable noun when it is mentioned for the first time.

I saw a lion in the zoo today.

            I have never seen a comet.

  • before a singular countable noun or adjective beginning with a consonant sound.

            I saw a movie; she found a book; he ate a banana;

            a beautiful flower; a tall girl

  • before a singular countable noun which is an example of a class of things.

            a child needs love (= all children need love)

  • to express quantity.

a lot of, a bit of; a couple of; a dozen; a pair of;

            a number of; a great deal of; a few, a little etc.

  • before units of price, speed, ratio, weight etc.

Sugar is Rs. 23 a kilo.

            This car gives 20 kilometres a litre.

  • before certain numbers.

a hundred; a billion

  • in expression of frequency.

Take this medicine twice a day.

We have music lessons once a week.

  • in certain exclamatory expressions.

What a beautiful shot!        

            What a pity!

‘an’ performs the same function as ‘a’ but ‘an’ is used before singular countable nouns which begin with a vowel sound (a,e,i,o,u).

 

REMEMBER:

  • The initial sound, not the spelling is important.

The following words begin with vowel letters but not with vowel sounds. They, therefore, take ‘a’ before them:

a university, a one rupee-note, a European, aunit.

The following words begin with consonant letters but with vowel sounds. They, therefore take ‘an’ before them:

            an hour, an heir, an MP

  • The main function of the indefinite article is to tell that the noun it precedes does not refer to any particular person or thing.
  • The indefinite article is not normally usedbefore uncountable nouns, such as water, sugar, wheat, iron, music, beauty, etc. But if an uncountable noun is used in a particular sense, ‘a’ or ‘an’ can be used with it.

I always have a coffee with my lunch. (a cup of coffee)

            She is a great beauty. (a very beautiful woman)

  • If a countable noun is preceded by an adjective a/an is used before the adjective according to its initial sound.

            He is an honest man.         

            It is a useful book.

          The Definite Article (the) can be used with both countable nouns – singular as well as plural- and uncountable nouns. Its main use is to specify a person, place or thing.

            There is a duster on my desk.

Get me the duster.

          ‘The’ is usedbefore:

  • a singular noun when it refers to a particular class or group.

The cow is a sacred animal.

The bicycle is a common man’s vehicle.

My brother has joined the army.

  • the names of rivers, ranges of mountains, gulfs, seas,

oceans, groups of islands, names of ships, etc.

the Ganga, the Himalayas, the Indian Ocean,

theAndamans, theSamrat.

  • the names of countries in plural

the United Kingdom,

the United States of America,

the Netherlands.

  • the names of religious books

the Ramayana. theVedas. the Gita, the Bible.

  • hotels, museums and certain buildings

theAshoka Hotel, the Central Bank,

the Ministry of Defence, the Taj Mahal, the Red Fort.

  • the names of families in plural

theNehrus, theKapurs.

  • the names of newspapers

the Tribune, the Indian Express

  • the superlatives of adjectives

the best boy, the worst thing.

  • descriptiveadjectives referring to a whole group or class

the rich = rich people, the poor = poor people.

  • names of races and communities

the Sikhs, the Chinese, the English.

  • expressionslike

bythe dozen, all the students,

boththe brothers, the same thing, etc.

 

Do not use ‘the’before:

  • abstract nouns, plural nouns, proper nouns, names of materials, meals, colours, when used in general sense.
  • the names of games.
  • expressions like all day, all night, by train, by air.

 

DEMONSTRATIVES:

 

‘That’(plural – ‘those’) is used to avoid the repetition of the preceding noun.

My shirt is better than that of my friend.

Our soldiers are better equipped than those ofPakistan.

‘This’(plural – ‘these’) refers to person(s) or thing(s) near the speaker.

This book is very interesting.

These lowers are beautiful.

‘That’ (plural – ‘those’) refers to person(s) or thing(s) far from the speaker.

Get that cat out of here.

Those houses are for sale.

 

POSSESSIVES

         

Personal Pronouns

(subject)

Possessive

Adjective

Possessive

Pronoun

I

you

he

she

it

we

they

my

your

his

her

its

our

their

mine

yours

his

hers

ours

theirs

          Note : ‘Its’ is used only as a possessive adjective.

 

Indefinite Adjectives

  • Some is generally used in affirmative sentences with uncountableand plural countable nouns:

There is some evidence that he is guilty.

I have some good ideas on the subject.

Somecan be used in questions when we expect ‘yes’ answer.

Would you like some coffee?

Could you give me some examples?

  • Any is generally used in questions when you ask whether something exists or not. It is also used in negative sentences to say that something does not exist.

 

Do you have any advice to offer on this subject?

It hasn’t made any difference.

 

Any is also used in affirmative sentences before plural nouns and uncountable nouns when you refer to a quantity of something which may or may not exist.

 

Check if you are in any doubt.

You can stop at any time you like.

 

  • Little and Much refer to amount or quantity.

Little is used to emphasize that there is only a small amount of something.

Much emphasizes a large amount. Both are used with uncountable nouns.

 

We have made little progress.

Do you watch much television?

 

A little refers to a small amount of something without any emphasis.

 

I have to spend a little time in Delhi.

I am having a little trouble these days.

 

  • Few and Many refer to number.

These are used before plural countable nouns.

Few emphasizes a small number.

 

Few students were present today.

Many people went to welcome the Prime Minister.

 

A few refers to a small number without any emphasis.

They stayed in London for a few days.

 

  • More, Less and Fewer are comparative determiners.

More is used before plural and uncountable nouns (with than) to refer to a quantity or amount of something which is greater than another quantity or amount. It is also used to refer to an additional quantity of something (without than)

He does more work than I do.

His visit might do more harm than good.

We need more information.

 

Less is used to refer to an amount of something that issmaller than another amount.

 

It is usually used before uncountable nouns.

The poor have less access to education.

He finds less time for his hobbies.

Fewer is used to refer to a group of things that is smaller than another group before plural nouns.

Fewer students passed the examination this year.

There are fewer trees here.

 

OTHERS:

  • All requires a plural verb when followed by countableplural nouns. It includes every person or thing of aparticular kind.

All prisoners cannot be treated in the same manner.

Allrequires a singular verb when it is followedby an uncountable noun.

All that glitters is not gold.

 

  • Both is used to talk about two persons or things of the samekind. It is used to emphasize that the two persons or thingsare involved, rather than one. It is often followed by ‘and’.

 

He held mangoes in both hands.

Both Ramesh and Rakesh are good players oftennis.

 

  • Either and Neither refer to two persons or things, butusually indicate that only one of the two is (is not) involved.

Neither is used with a singular noun.

 

Take either half; they are exactly the same.

Neither statement is true.

 

Either can mean both of two things especially when used with ‘end’or ‘side’.

They stood on either side of the bed.

There was an arm chair at either end of the table.

 

  • Each and Every refer to all the members of a group ofpersons or things. When we think about the members asindividuals, we use ‘each’, and when we make a generalstatement about all of them, we use ‘every’. They arefollowed by singular countable nouns and take verbs in thesingular.

Each seat was covered with a white cover.

They rushed out to meet each visitor.

This new development can be seen in everyvillage.

Every child would have milk every day.

 

Each can be used when talking about two people or things, but every is used for more than two.

 

  • One: When we have been talking or writing about a group of people or things and want to say something about a particular member of the group, we use one. It is used instead of ‘a’ or ‘an’ and is more emphatic.

We had onecase which dragged on for a coupleof years.

I know one household where that thing actuallyhappened.

One woman novelist wrote that they criticized her all the time.

 

As a pronoun ‘One’ should be followed by appropriate cases of ‘one’.

One should do one’s duty.

 

  • Another is used with singular countable nouns to talk about an additional person or thing of the same type as have already been mentioned.

Could I have another cup of coffee?

He opened another shop last month.

Five officials were sacked and another  fourarrested.

 

  • Other is used with plural nouns or sometimes with uncountable nouns.

Other people must have thought like this.

They are either asleep or absorbed in play or other activity.

 

  • Enough is used before uncountable nouns or plural nouns to say that there is as much of something as is needed, or as many things as are needed.

It had enough room to store all the information.

They were not getting enough guests.

 

  • Most indicates nearly all of a group or amount.

Most people recover but the disease can be fatal.

Most farmers are still using the old methods.

 

  • Several usually indicates an imprecise number that is not very large, but is more than two.

I had seen her several times before.

There were several reasons for this.

 

 

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. Read the following paragraphs and fill in the blanks with appropriate determiner.
  2. Savita has lost the (a) .  pens she had. Now she has spent the (b) .  money she hadon buying more. So she is giving (c) ……………………………………………………. worried look.
  3. There are so (a) …..  ways of entertainment in life, (b) ….  circus is one of the mostentertaining media. Last Sunday (c)…………………… of (d)  friends went to see the Diamond circus.

……… My uncle took us there.(e) ……………..one paid for (f) ……………………ticket.

  1. (a)……….. is one of (b)………. most memorable trips. At Rameshwaram we saw (c)   ancient temples, which gave (d) ……….. idea of   our glorious past. It added (e)…………… ……………… to(f) …………. knowledge.
  2. .. Sahil: Meet him, (a) ………… is (b) ………..  brother.

……… Rohan:   You resemble (c) ……… (d) ………….

……… Sahil:    No, you are wrong, (e) …. …………….. of us resemble.

……… In fact there is hardly (f)………….. ………………. resemblance.

  1. … MuknaKangjei is (a)……. very popular game in Manipur. It enjoyed (b)…… royalpatronage in (c)………………………… olden days. Manipur is known for several games that developed over(d)……………………… period of time. It is (e)……………… indigenous game. In the beginning it was verypopular but now slowly (f)……………..game is fading away.
  2. … The interact club of ABC Public School recently organised (a)……………… voluntary blood donationcamp. (b) ……………….event was
    (c) ………………initiative of (d) …………………Rotary Club of Delhi. As(e)…………. part of drive (f) ………………students took out a rally in the vicinity of the school.

 

PREPOSITIONS

A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to show its relation with other words in text. Prepositions are used before nouns to give additional information in a sentence. Usually, prepositions are used to show where something is located or when something happened.

Prepositions can be of the following types:

  1. Prepositions of time

These prepositions are used:

(a)      to denote the time of the day

            Examples:     I went to the market on Monday.

                                    The movie starts at three o’ clock.

(b)      to denote parts of the day, months, years, seasons

            Examples:     The sun rises in the morning.

The Board exams are heldin March.

My sister was born in 1999.

Shimla is a place one should visit in summer.

(c)      to denote extended time

            Examples:     She has not eaten since yesterday.

                                    I will be on vacation for two weeks.

The first term will be from June to September.

Some children play during lunchtime.

She will complete this project within a year.

  1. Prepositions of place

These types of prepositions are used:

(a)      to denote a particular point

            Examples:     There are many rooms in the school.

                                    The jewels are keptinside the case.

The basket is kepton the chair.

There is a sale at the shop.

(b)      to denote a place higher than a point

            Examples:     The kite flew over my roof.

He lives in the flat just above mine.

(c)      to denote a place lower than a point

            Examples:     They have constructed the parking under the ground.

                                    The children snuggled underneath the blanket.

They hid the treasure beneath the rocks.

There is an entirely new world below the sea-level.

(d)      to denote a neighbouring point

            Examples:     She has a shop near the park.

There is a cyber cafe by the store.

The vendor sells vegetables next to my house.

Her house is situatedbetween Saket and Malviya Nagar.

She is the happiest in the library among books.

The school is situatedopposite a cinema hall.

  1. Prepositions introducing objects

These types of prepositions are used:

(a)      as objects of verbs

            Examples:      It is difficult not to laugh at his joke.

The teacher asked the students to look at the blackboard.

It is very natural to smile at a baby.

(b)      with ‘of’

            Examples:    I did not approve of his behaviour.

This book consists of many pages.

He dreams of becoming a film star.

  1. Prepositions of location

These prepositions are used:

(a)      To denote a point

            Examples:     Is your father at home?

There was no guard at the railway crossing.

There was a huge crowd at the bank.

(b)      to denote surface

            Examples:    The man was working on his presentation.

A ship floats on water.

(c)      to denote an area/volume in an enclosed area

            Examples:     The cattle are in the pasture.

There are five windows in the room.

There is a lot of waterlogging in the streets.

(d)      to denote an area/volume not enclosed by a fence

            Example:       The horses were grazing in the open field.

  1. Prepositions of direction

These prepositions indicate the direction.

            Example:       The hospital is situatedat the corner of J Block and PushpVihar.

  1. Prepositions of destination

These prepositions are used to indicate:

(a)      movement towards a goal

            Examples:     He walked all the way to his apartment.

                                    It is a very short distance to the bus stop.

(b)      movement towards a surface

             Examples:    The ball fell onto the net.

The short stories were recordedonto cassettes.

The window opened directly onto the pavement.

(c)      movement towards the interior of a volume

Example:      The cat fell into the well.

(d)      movement in a general direction

Example:       She always sits meditating with her face towards the east.

 

  1. Prepositions denoting means of transportation

These prepositions are used:

(a)      to indicate climbing

Example:       She finds it difficult to climb into a moving bus.

(b)      with ‘go’

Examples:     She has decided to go to London by ship.

She goes to school on foot.

 

  1. Complete the passage given below using suitable prepositions.

……… The needless torture and pain inflicted (a) ……………….  these victims of science borders (b) ………………the diabolical. With mounting evidence (c)……………………… such callous and criminal cruelties to animals,there is a growing movement (d) …………………… animal lovers to oppose such indiscriminate slaughter. The monkey business started fifty years ago when a handful (e)……………………………… the animals were exported(f)………… medical research.

 

  1. Complete the passage given below using suitable prepositions.

……… Some people are lucky enough never to fall sick, but most (a)…………… us have to go (b)………………adoctor occasionally (c)……………  examination and treatment. Except in emergencies, it is customaryto make an appointment (d)……………. arriving at a doctor’s office. When a patient visits a doctor(e)……………… the first time, he or she is asked a number of questions (f)………… the doctor’s assistant, so that the doctor can have a complete medical history. This aids the doctor (g) ……………..making an accurate diagnosis. The assistant asks the patient (h) …………………… the symptoms he or shehas and (i)…………………..his previous illnesses or injuries he has suffered.

 

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. The following passages have not been edited. There is one error related to the use of preposition in each numbered line. Write the correct word against the incorrect word. Do not copy the whole passage.

                                                                             Incorrect               Correct

  1. Tsunami is a series in waves (a) ………………..    …………………..

generated in a body from water                (b) ………………..    …………………..

through an impulsive disturbance            (c) ………………..    …………………..

causing property damage and loss in life. (d) ………………..    …………………..

They are referred to by tidal waves.          (e) ………………..    …………………..

Waves act below the influence of gravity.  (f) ………………..     …………………..

 

                                                                             Incorrect              Correct

  1. The Metro Rail System is unique through (a) ……………….. …………………..

the whole world. People in Delhi and        (b) ………………..    …………………..

inneighbouring states will enjoy               (c) ………………..    …………………..

this unique railway facility.

The Metro station of Connaught Place      (d) ………………..    …………………..

is equivalent in the Victoria terminal       (e) ………………..    …………………..

of the well placed central London.            (f)  ………………..    …………………..

                                                                             Incorrect              Correct

  1. The problem in unemployment (a) ………………..    …………………..

of India is very serious.                            (b) ………………..    …………………..

For provide jobs to rapidly                       (c) ………………..    …………………..

increasing population is very difficult.

All the countries in the world are             (d) ………………..    …………………..

facing the same. From two crores are       (e) ………………..    …………………..

partly employed. They can be provided

opportunities before engage themselves    (f)  ………………..    …………………..

in spinning and handloom industries.

 

                                                                             Incorrect              Correct

  1. Environmental pollution has posed

a serious threat not only in man              (a)   ………………..  …………………..

but also among all living beings.              (b)   ………………..  …………………..

Poverty and population are the

worst polluters in environment.               (c)  ………………..   …………………..

During olden times needs were limited.    (d)  ………………..   …………………..

The increase of population and                (e)  ………………..   …………………..

fast development in cities are the             (f)  ………………..    …………………..

main culprit.

 

  1. Fill in the blanks with correct preposition.

Mohan distributed the sweets (a)………………Ram and Shyam. Shyam is fond   (b) …………………….sweets but Ram is not. Ram eats chocolates which are made (c) ………………. milk. He says thatchocolate is superior (d) ……………….  sweets. He is addicted (e)……………………… chocolate milk. Most of the boys prefer chocolate (f)………………………. sweets.

 

 

 

SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS

 

Transformation is a process of changing the form of a sentence without changing its basic meaning. It enables a person to express the same thing in a different way without affecting the meaning. For example-

 

  1. Hurry up.

Will you please hurry up?

Hurry up, will you?

You are requested to hurry up.

  1. Please open the window.

Will you please open the window?

Would you mind opening the window.

  1. My brother is very wise.

My brother is not a fool.

  1. Roshan is too weak to walk.

Roshan is so weak that he cannot walk.

In these sentences different forms of the same sentence have been given. Notice that though their form is different their meaning is the same.

 

Rule of Transformation

 

  1. Transformation of subject + verb + too + Adjective/adverb + infinitive to principal clause (with so/such) -i- that + adverb clause.
  2. The man is too poor to pay his bills. (Simple sentence)

The man is so poor that he cannot pay his bills, (complex sentence)

  1. Shyam is too honest to cheat. (simple)

Shyam is so honest that he cannot cheat. (complex sentence)

  • too is replaced by so/such
  • Infinitive is changed into ‘that + Negative adverb clause of result.

Shyam is too honest to cheat.

Shyam is so honest that he cannot cheat.

 

Exercise 1 : Rewrite the following sentences by removing the adverb ‘too’.

  1. Shweta is too weak in studies to pass.
  2. My sister is too good to harm anyone.
  3. My boss is too busy to pick up the phone.
  4. The patient is too weak to go upstairs.
  5. This house is too expensive for me to buy.
  6. Anil is too lazy to get up early in the morning.
  7. Rakesh is too slow to win the race.
  8. Anika is too short to touch the painting.

 

Exercise 2 :Rewrite the following sentences using the   adverb ‘too’.

  1. The man was so tired that he could not climb the hill.
  2. Hari is so simple that he cannot tell a lie.
  3. This question is so difficult that the children cannot solve it.
  4. My mother is so simple that she cannot look after our business.
  5. The gardener was so old that he could not climb the tree.
  6. The new teacher is so lenient that she cannot control the class.
  7. The river was so deep that the child cannot cross it.
  8. The chair was so heavy that the painter cannot lift it.

 

  1. Transformation of subject + verb + Adjective/Adverb + enough + infinitive to principal clause(with so + that + adverb clause).

He is tall enough to touch the fan.

          So              that he can                                                                                 

He is so tall that he can touch the fan.

  • ‘Enough’ is replaced by so.
  •         Infinitive is changed into that + positive adverb clause of result.

 

Exercise 3 :Rewrite the following sentences by removing ‘enough’.                                 

 

  1. Raju is old enough to go to market.
  2. This table is strong enough to hold 100 kg. weight.
  3. My brother is intelligent enough to impress the boss.
  4. Sohan is smart enough to impress the boss.
  5. Rathika is foolish enough to believe the strangers.
  6. Kalpana is tall enough to clean the ceiling fan.
  7. Meenu is fast enough to catch the train.
  8. Anamika is rude enough to insult her seniors. i

 

  1. Transformation of Degree

(i)  Transformation from positive to comparative degree

  1. Soni is as beautiful as Moni.

Moni is not more beautiful than Soni.

  1. Ram is as strong as his brother.

Ram’s brother is not stronger than him.

  • Adjective/adverb is put into the comparative form along with ‘than’.
  • The Affirmative sentence is made negative and negative affirmative.

 

Exercise 4. Rewrite the following sentences after changing the degree of comparison from positive to comparative.

  1. Radha is as smart as Krishna.
  2. My school is as famous as yours.
  3. Mohan is as strong as Sohan.
  4. My brother is as brilliant as my sister.
  5. Mr. Sharma is as strict as Mr. Desai.
  6. Kamla’s hair is as long as that of Shanta.
  7. This book is as interesting as that one.
  8. Your car is as expensive as mine.

 

Exercise 5. Rewrite the following sentences after changing the degree of comparison from comparative to positive.

  1. Mansi is brighter than her sister.
  2. The Taj Mahal is more beautiful than any other building of the country.
  3. The children are more playful than their parents.
  4. Ajay is more handsome than his brother.
  5. Mamta is more intelligent than Sunita.
  6. Gold is more precious than any other metal.
  7. Shakespeare is greater than any other novelist.
  8. I love you more than anybody else.

(ii)  Transformation from   comparative to superlative degree

  1. Babu is faster than any other boy in the class.

Babu is the fastest boy in the class.

  1. Gold is more expensive than any other metal.

Gold is the most expensive metal.

  • Any other/no other is left out.
  • The comparative form is changed into superlative form.
  • ‘Than’ is removed, ‘the’ is added before superlative degree.

 

Exercise 6. Rewrite the following sentences after changing the degree of Adjective from comparative to superlative.

  1. No other poet is greater than Kalidas.
  2. Mr. Joshi is taller than any other teacher.
  3. No other girl is more beautiful than her.
  4. Kavita is more intelligent than any other girl in the class.
  5. No other language is more widely used than English.
  6. Anita is more afraid of dogs than any girl in the school.
  7. No other boy is stronger than Amit.
  8. Vinita is more hardworking than any other student in the class.
  9. Nainital is more beautiful than any other hill station in India.

 

Exercise 7. Rewrite the following sentences after changing the degree of Adjective from superlative to comparative.

  1. Diamond is the hardest metal.
  2. Anita is the best student in the class.
  3. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in India.
  4. VishwanathanAnand is the best chess player.
  5. BurjKhalifa is the tallest building in the world.
  6. Anamika is the best singer in her class.
  7. AksharDham is the best religious place in Delhi.
  8. Anubhav is the laziest boy in the class.

 

(iii) Transformation from positive to superlative.

  1. No other poet is as great as Kalidas.

Kalidas is the greatest poet.

  1. No other metal in as costly as gold.

Gold is the costliest metal.

No other/any other is left out

_____ As____________ as/ So_______ as is changed into superlative degree of adjectives.’‘few/very few’ is changed into ‘one of the’

 

Exercise 8. Rewrite the following sentences after changing the degree of Adjective from positive to superlative.

 

  1. No other student is as fast as Amit.
  2. Very few students are as co-operative as Arun.
  3. No other boy runs as fast as Kapil in the class.
  4. Very few offices are as clean as this.
  5. No other fruit is as tasty as mango.
  6. No other market is as crowded as LajpatNagar.
  7. Very few buildings are as high as Antariksha’ in Connaught Place.
  8. No other teacher is as strict as our English teacher.

 

Exercise 9. Rewrite the following sentences after changing the degree of Adjective from superlative to comparative.

  1. Hira Lal is the richest man in our society.
  2. Kanha is the tallest boy in the team.
  3. Rachna is the most beautiful girl in the class.
  4. Rose is the most splendid flower.
  5. Madan is the strongest player in the team.
  6. Sachin Tendulkar is the best cricketer.
  7. Rajni is the smartest girl in the family.
  8. Anandi is the best character in the serial BalikaVadhu.

 

  1. Transformation of kinds of statements.

(i)       Interrogative to Assertive                                                                               

  • Does man live by water alone?

Man does not live by water alone.

  • Who can deny the fact?

No one can deny the fact.

  • An affirmative question becomes a negative statement.
  • A Negative question becomes a positive statement.

Exercise 10 : Rewrite the following questions by changing them into Assertive Sentences.  

  1. Shall I ever forget you?
  2. Can anyone break the records of Sachin?
  3. Who would hate his country?
  4. Why waste time in waiting here?
  5. Who won’t die for his country?
  6. Isn’t the earth a wonderful planet?
  7. Who doesn’t like to be free?
  8. Can the dumb speak?

 

(ii)      Affirmative to Negative

As soon as the students saw the teacher, they rushed to their class.

No sooner did the students see the teacher, than they rushed to their class.

He is a fast runner.

He is not a slow runner.

  • Affirmative word is removed.

Opposite of the key word is used.

  • Change in key words —

          Affirmative                      Negative

A few                                 Not many

As soon as                         No sooner – than

Always                              never

All                                     none

Everybody                         nobody

Everyone                           none

 

Exercise 11. Change the following sentences from Affirmative to Negative.

 

  1. Tulsidas wrote ‘Ram CharitManas’.
  2. This is a common occurrence.
  3. Obama visited the Taj Mahal.
  4. As soon as he saw the falling child, he ran to save it.
  5. Mohan’s brother is stronger than him.
  6. There is always fire where there is smoke.
  7. Only Delhiites need apply for this post.
  8. He is too weak to speak.

 

Exercise 12. Rewrite the following sentences after changing them into Affirmative from Negative.

  1. No one but a fool could have thrown the book.
  2. Are you not a liar?
  3. There is no dark cloud without a silver lining.
  4. It is no use crying over spilt milk.
  5. No sooner did Mohan see the thief, than he ran away.
  6. We do not entertain guests other than Indians.
  7. No other person could have jumped to save the child.
  8. No one hates his country.

(iii)     Transformation of Statements to Exclamation.

It is a very pleasant weather. (statement)

What a pleasant weather it is ! (exclamatory)

It is nice of you to help me. (statement).

How nice of you to help me ! (Exclamatory)

  • Very is left out in exclamatory sentences.
  • Full stop is replaced by mark of exclamation.
  • What/how is placed in the beginning of sentence. (What is used with a Noun, whereas ‘How’ is used with an Adjective.)
  • The words of exclamation like ‘oh’, ‘Ah’, ‘Alas’, ‘hurry’, etc. are used to express the emotions.

 

Exercise 13. Rewrite the following exclamatory sentences by changing them into Assertive sentences.

  1. What a piece of work is man!
  2. How wonderful is the Taj!
  3. If only I could see the hero once!
  4. A soldier is afraid of battlefield!
  5. Alas!myfavourite hero Rajesh Khanna is departed!
  6. If only I could tell the truth!
  7. How lovely the rose is!

 

Exercise 14. Rewrite the following statements by changing them into Exclamatory sentences.

  1. The mangoes are very delicious.
  2. I wish that I could go to heaven.
  3. It was a pleasant day when I met you.
  4. I wish that I could meet the President of India.
  5. You should be ashamed of being so cruel.
  6. It is a pity that the old people are ignored.
  7. Your child is very sweet.
  8. It is sad that she lost her mother.

 

 

INTEGRATED GRAMMAR EXERCISES

TYPE : 1

Test type will include gap filling to test the knowledge in the following areas :

(i) Determiners (ii) Connectors (iii) Modals (iv) Prepositions (v) Subject-verb-concord

 

INSTRUCTIONS

In the following passages, choose the most appropriate option from the ones given below to complete the passage. Write the answers in your answer sheet against the correct blank number. Do not copy the whole passage.

  1. Gravitation is the force (a) _____ holds us all down (b) _____ the surface of the earth. Anything (c) _____ upwards falls back to the earth. It is not only the earth that has the pull of gravity (d) ____ also everything else in the universe. Everything in this universe attracts (e) _____ other body to (f) _______.

(a)      (i) Whom                (ii) that                  (iii) whose    (iv) who

(b)      (i) into                   (ii) on                    (iii) to          (iv) in

(c)      (i) thrown              (ii) throwing           (iii) to throw          (iv) threw

(d)      (i) because             (ii) and                  (iii) so          (iv) but

(e)      (i) each                  (ii) every                (iii) either    (iv) neither

(f)       (i) themselves        (ii) herself              (iii) itself      (iv) himself

 

  1. Mark Twain was the pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens

(a) _____ was one of (b) ______ greatest fiction writers of America. He grew up in a small town (c) ______ the bank of the Mississippi River. (d) ______ a small boy he moved to Hannibal on the banks of the river (e) ______ he experienced (f) _______ excitement of river travel.

(a)      (i) Which               (ii) who                  (iii) that       (iv) he

(b)      (i) an                     (ii) a                      (iii) the        (iv) his

(c)      (i) on                     (ii) in                     (iii) at          (iv) upon

(d)      (i) since                 (ii) from                 (iii) to          (iv) as

(e)      (i) when                 (ii) where               (iii) whenever (iv) whence

(f)       (i) a                       (ii) his                   (iii) an         (iv) the

 

  1. Lecture as a method of teaching is as old as civilisation. It is

(a) _____ commonly practised and very widely used. In (b) ______ countries,
(c) ______ traditional and almost the only technique (d) ______ was the formal lecture. The effective use of lecture requires skilful preparation (e) ______ is incomplete (f) _______ followed by questions and answers.

(a)      (i) more                 (ii) much               (iii) most      (iv) many

(b)      (i) a                       (ii) the                   (iii) an         (iv) many

(c)      (i) the                    (ii) a                      (iii) every     (iv) an

(d)      (i) employ              (ii) employs            (iii) employed (iv) employing

(e)      (i) who                   (ii) which               (iii) it           (iv) whom

(f)       (i) unless               (ii) if                      (iii) fill         (iv) since

 

  1. The human body is like a machine containing (a) _____ systems (b) ______ out the processes (c) ______ life. Each system is (d) ______ up of organs (e) ______ consist of (f) _______ cells and tissues.

(a)      (i) little                  (ii) several             (iii) much     (iv) more

(b)      (i) to carry             (ii) carry                (iii) carries   (iv) carried

(c)      (i) for                     (ii) in                     (iii) of           (iv) with

(d)      (i) makes               (ii) making             (iii) make     (iv) made

(e)      (i) that                   (ii) who                  (iii) whose    (iv) those

(f)       (i) specialise          (ii) specialised       (iii) specialising (iv) specializes

 

  1. There is a great difference (a) _____ faith and (b) ______ people call belief. (c) ______ belief is superficial and is easily (d) ______ , faith makes us strong. We (e) ______ have faith in God (f) _______ we know that He exists.

(a)      (i) among               (ii) between            (iii) in          (iv) from

(b)      (i) when                 (ii) how                  (iii) what      (iv) which

(c)      (i) while                 (ii) when                (iii) since     (iv) where

(d)      (i) shaking             (ii) shaken             (iii) shake    (iv) shook

(e)      (i) can’t                  (ii) shouldn’t          (iii) can        (iv) should

(f)       (i) till                     (ii) so                     (iii) that       (iv) unless

 

TYPE : 2

 

Test type will include gap-filling to test the knowledge in using the words appropriately.

 

INSTRUCTIONS

          In the following passages, choose the most appropriate option from the ones given below to complete the passage. Write the answers in your answer sheet against the correct blank number. Do not copy the whole passage.

  1. Group (a) _________ is an (b) ________ conversation in which members of a group (c) ______ participate and exchange (d) ______ with a purpose. A problem is (e) ______ by raising questions and (f) _____ suggestions.

 

(a)      (i) discuss              (ii) discussion        (iii) to discuss        (iv) discursive (b)   (i) organise                          (ii) no organise       (iii) organised (iv) organisation (c)       (i) active           (ii) activity             (iii) actively                               (iv) act

(d)      (i) ideas                 (ii) ideal                 (iii) ideally             (iv) idiom

(e)      (i) examination      (ii) to examine        (iii) examining       (iv) examined

(f)       (i) made                 (ii) make                (iii) making            (iv) makes

 

  1. It is (a) ______ that faith cannot stand the test of (b) ______. In fact, they are not opposed to each other. (c) ______ supplement each other.

(a)      (i) belief                 (ii) believed            (iii) believing                   (iv) believe

(b)      (i) reason               (ii) reasonable        (iii) reasonably       (iv) reasoning

(c)      (i) certainty           (ii) certain             (iii) certainly                   (iv) curtained

 

  1. The mind is the (a) ______ of human life. It can be the garden of joys or the (b) ______ path to (c) ______ . One person is (d) _______ because he (e) ______ likes his occupation while another is (f) _______ because he fears death.

(a)      (i) mysterious        (ii) mystery            (iii) mysteriously    (iv) sorry

(b)      (i) secretly             (ii) secrecy             (iii) secrets            (iv) secret

(c)      (i) sorrow               (ii) sorrowful          (iii) sorrowfully      (iv) sorry

(d)      (i) depression         (ii) depress            (iii) depressed        (iv) depressive

(e)      (i) hard                  (ii) hardly              (iii) harden             (iv) harder

(f)       (i) misery               (ii) miserably         (iii)miserable         (iv) miserly

 

  1. Pollution is (a) ______ as the contamination of environment’s pure elements by the (b) ______ substances or increase in their percentage above a certain (c) ______ limit. Pollution of air is (d) _______ of pure air by noxious fumes. Pollution of water is a (e) ______ of industrial development. It is our collective (f) _______ to check pollution.

(a)      (i) defining             (ii) defined             (iii) define    (iv) definition

(b)      (i) harmful             (ii) harm                (iii) harmless (iv) harmfully

(c)      (i) permission        (ii) permissible       (iii) permit   (iv) permissibly

(d)      (i) contamination   (ii) contaminate     (iii) contain (iv) contained

(e)      (i) consequent        (ii) consequence     (iii) consequently (iv) consistence

(f)       (i) responsibility     (ii) responsible       (iii) response          (iv) respond

  1. Liberty is not a (a) ______ affair only but a (b) ______ contract. It is an (c) ______ of interests. In matters which do not touch others liberty, I will be (d) _______ free and won’t (e) ______ anyone’s (f) _______ .

(a)      (i) personally         (ii) person              (iii) personal          (iv) personality

(b)      (i) social                (ii) socially             (iii) society   (iv) socialise

(c)      (i) adjustable         (ii) adjustment       (iii) adjusted (iv) adjust

(d)      (i) completion         (ii) complete           (iii) completely (iv) completed

(e)      (i) requirement      (ii) requires           (iii) required (iv) require

(f)       (i) permissible        (ii) permission       (iii) permitted (iv) permit

 

TYPE-3

          Students are providedwith a piece of conversation between two persons. The conversation is reported in a passage having four incomplete sentences. Students are required to complete the sentences in reported speech by providing their own responses. Each correct answer is worth one mark.

 

  1. Doctor : How do you feel now?

Patient : Slightly better.

Doctor : Did you take the medicines regularly?

Patient : Yes.

The doctor asked the patient how (a) _______. The patient replied (b) _______ better. When the doctor asked him (c) _______ the medicines regularly, he replied in affirmation.

 

  1. Ankit : Where are you going?

Atul : To the airport.

Ankit : May I drop you there in my car?

Atul : Thanks a lot. It will be a great help to me.

Ankit asked Atul where (a) ________. Atul replied (b) _______ airport. Ankit further asked him (c) ______ there in his car. Atul thanked him adding that it would be a great help to him.

 

  1. Tanmay : How did you spend your vacation?

Astha : I visited Kashmir with my parents.

Tanmay : Have you been there earlier too?

Astha : No, it was my first trip.

Tanmay asked Astha how (a) ______ vacation. Astha replied that (b) _______ with her parents. Tanmay further asked her if she had been there earlier too. Astha replied in negation saying that (c) ________ .

 

  1. Teacher : Why are you late?

Sumit : I missed my school bus.

Teacher : Why didn’t you leave in time?

Sumit : Sorry, I will do so from tomorrow.

The teacher asked Sumit why (a) ______ late. Sumit replied that (b) ________ school bus. When the teacher asked him why (c) _______ in time, Sumit apologetically replied that he would do so from the next day.

 

  1. Sonu : What makes you weep?

Rohan : Someone has stolen my wallet.

Sonu : Where did you keep it.

Rohan : In the back pocket of my trousers.

Sonu asked Rohan what (a) ________. He replied that someone (b) _______. Next, Sonu enquired of him where he had kept it. Rohan answered that (c) ________ in the back pocket of his trousers.

 

TYPE-4

Test type will require the students to use the correct passive forms of the verbs by choosing the appropriate options from the given ones.

INSTRUCTIONS

Complete the following passages by choosing the correct passive forms of the verbs given in brackets from the alternatives given below the passage. Write only your answers in the answer sheet against the correct blank number.

  1. Yesterday the city (a) _______ (hit) by a thunder-storm. Many trees (b) ______ (uproot) and streets at several places (c) ______ (flood) resulting in traffic jams.

(a)      (i) is hit                 (ii) was hitting       (iii) is hitting         (iv) was hit

(b)      (i) were uprooted    (ii) was uproot

(iii) were uprooting                             (iv) will be uprooted

(c)      (i) was flooding      (ii) were flooded     (iii) flooded   (iv) were flooding

  1. If a long journey (a) ________ (give) a good start, it is half covered. Weariness of the traveller (b) _______ (defeat) by his enthusiasm and hope. He (c) _______ (reward) with success.

(a)      (i) is giving            (ii) was give           (iii) is given (iv) can given

(b)      (i) is defeated         (ii) defeated           (iii) were defeated (iv) defeating (c)     (i) was rewarding                       (ii) is rewarded      (iii) is rewarding    (iv) rewarded

 

  1. Pleasure (a) ________ (enjoy) without passing through pains. Spring (b) _______ (relish) only by those whose bones (c) _______ (freeze) by unbearably cold winter.

(a)      (i) enjoy                 (ii) enjoys

(iii) are enjoyed      (iv) can’t be enjoyed

(b)      (i) relishing            (ii) was relished     (iii) is relished

(iv) are relishing

(c)      (i) has frozen                                      (ii) is frozen

(iii) have been frozen                           (iv) has been frozen

 

  1. Whenever I feel that I (a) ________ (leave) alone even by my shadow, my loneliness (b) _______ (dispel) by the soothing presence of someone who is everything for me. At that moment, I (c) _______ (compensate) heavily for all the losses even that of my shadow.

 

(a)      (i) has left              (ii) have left

(iii) have been left (iv) have been leave

(b)      (i) has dispelled     (ii) is dispelled       (iii) was dispelled   (iv) is dispel (c)      (i) am compensated

(ii) am compensating

(iii) have compensated

(iv) was compensated

Type :5

 

Re-ordering of words/phrases into meaningful sentences

The words and phrases in the following sentences are jumbled up. Rearrange the words to make meaningful sentences.

  1. (a) place / our lives / music / important / has / in / an

(b) body and / activates / our / it / mind

(c) a / is / art / also / regarded / as / fine / it

 

  1. (a) its / urbanisation / in India / everywhere / has / tentacles / spread

(b) only / the country / land / of / remains / villages / in name / in

(c) policy-makers / numerous / this / posed / challenges / has / the / for

 

  1. (a) religious / of / or spiritual / form / a / meditation is / contemplation

(b) basis / religions / most of the / of / the / is / it

(c) one’s own mind / processes / detached observation / and / is /

its / it / of

  1. (a) hardly / koalas are / ever drink / animals that / water

(b) water supply / they get / they eat / from / all their / the leaves

(c) can eat / everyday / each / one and a half kilograms / adult koala

/ upto / of leaves

 

  1. (a) are / eating / small / birds / insects / wagtails

(b) eight / of / wagtails / there / about / are / species

(c) to / are / related / they / closely / pipits

 

Type – 6 Editing (Error Finding)

The following passage has not been edited. There is an error in each line against which a blank is given. Write the incorrect word and the correction in your answer sheet against the correct blank number as given in the example. Remember to underline the word that you have supplied.

  1. Ten of thousands of bats emerge e.g. emerge – emerged

again and again.I can looked                        (a) ………………

a amazing sight. I learnt a                            (b) ………………

few fact about these creatures. The baby       (c) ………………

bats is known as pups. Each                        (d) ………………

mother bat delivers only one pups.                (e) ………………

They are usually born on June/July.            (f) ………………

  1. An one-eyed man was travelling e.g. An – A

through a bus one day. He was                     (a) ………………

carrying a huge bag on him                          (b) ………………

shoulder. Anyone sitting next to him             (c) ………………

said, “Why didn’t you keep your bag              (d) ………………

beneath the seat. The man smiled                (e) ………………

and said, “It is too big to be kept their.”         (f) ………………

 

  1. In the process to learning e.g. to – of

self-help is the better help                            (a) ………………

Depend always on others,                             (b) ………………

even on teachers or parents                          (c) ………………

is an sign of weakness.                                 (d) ………………

In the Mahabharta their is a                        (e) ………………

wonder character of Eklavya which               (f) ………………

is an ideal for modern students.

 

  1. Thanks to the current interest for fitness e.g. for – in

and health that people are taking                 (a) ………………

In each locality we find this days                  (b) ………………

some centres and clubs is springing             (c) ………………

up and they are do well in their                    (d) ………………

new venture. Because unfortunately they      (e) ………………

are not within easy reach for all.                  (f) ………………

 

  1. She lost her father when she is still e.g. is – was

a child. Her uncle looked at all the property (a) ………………

that she inherit from her father.                   (b) ………………

Since a few years her uncle worked very       (c)………………

sincerely. Afterwards he thinks, “This           (d) ………………

property should make me rich. How long       (e) ………………

should I kept serving my niece? I                  (f)………………

must do something.

 

  1. Automated Teller Machines (ATM) has e.g. has – have

revolutionised banking and made life easiest.       (a) ………………

Bank customers could now withdraw            (b) ………………

money of their account anytime and             (c) ………………

somewhere in their own country                   (d) ………………

or even from the world. However                   (e) ………………

like any other electrical gadget                     (f) ………………

they can also malfunction.

 

Type :7 Editing (Omissions)

          In the following passage one word has been omitted in each line. Write the missing word along with the word that comes before and the word that comes after it in your answer sheet against the correct blank number. Ensure that the word that forms your answer is underlined. The first one has been done for you.

  1. A man getting very impatient. e.g. man was getting

Again and again he would peep the                            (a) ………………

doctor’s room to see many patients                             (b) ………………

were left. After a long time his turn                            (c) ………………

came, he got up said, “Sorry doctor                            (d) ………………

I don’t have problem now. This long                            (e) ………………

wait has cured headache. I’m here                             (f) ………………

only to thank you.

  1. Fresh vegetables be cooked to perfection e.g. vegetables can be

in the microwave.They retain their                             (a)………………

full flavour, nutrients colour. Vegetables                    (b) ………………

can be cooked in casserole dishes lids                        (c) ………………

stirring once the cooking period.                                (d) ………………

Roasting boiling bags can also be used                       (e) ………………

for some vegetables with ends                                    (f) ………………

loosely closed allowing a bit of steam to escape.

 

  1. Now a days most the children e,g. most of the

get an opportunity go on school                                  (a) ………………

trips. They jump the chance                                      (b) ………………

to be away home for a                                                (c) ………………

week two. Some children, specially                            (d) ………………

those leaving home for first time                                (e) ………………

very much miss parents.                                           (f) ………………

 

  1. India a land of great diversity. e.g. India is a

There is diversity only in its                                       (a) ………………

geographical features also in the                                (b) ………………

race that its people belong, in                                    (c) ………………

the religion that profess and                                      (d) ………………

the languages that they. There                                   (e) ………………

is, however, a unity in its diversity                            (f) ………………

and this help to unite its people into one nation.

 

  1. All living things to breathe e.g. things have to

to survive. Each species has                                      (a) ………………

its peculiar way. Some                                               (b) ………………

breath lungs while others                                          (c) ………………

with gills or through skin.                                         (d) ………………

The respiratory system man is highly                         (e) ………………

developed and consists mainly the                             (f) ………………

respiratory passage and the lungs.

 

  1. Each and everyone wishes to healthy e.g. to be healthy

but very few ready to make efforts                              (a) ………………

in this direction. Most the people                               (b) ………………

give excuse that they busy and                                  (c) ………………

can’t spare any minute exercise.                                (d) ………………

Others believe in eating too. They                              (e) ………………

think that they get healthy by eating                          (f) ………………

all the time.

 

  1. Now in same village there lived e.g. in the same

a wicked old man his wife,                                         (a) ………………

not bit sensitive and kind, had                                   (b) ………………

always kicked and scolded dogs                                 (c) ………………

whenever anybody passed house.                               (d) ………………

Hearing their neighbour’s good luck                           (e) ………………

they coaxed the dog into their garden                         (f) ………………

and set before bits of fish hoping

he would find treasure for them.

 

  1. The shop had certain quiet distinction. e.g. had a certain

There was no sign upon other than                            (a) ………………

the name Gessler Brother; and                                  (b) ………………

in the window pairs of boots.                                     (c) ………………

He made only what ordered,                                       (d) ………………

and what made never failed to fit.                              (e) ………………

Such boots he made                                                  (f) ………………

seemed to me mysterious and wonderful.

 

Solution

Section : C

Type : 1

  1. (a) (ii) that

(b) (iii) to

(c) (i) thrown

(d) (iv) but

(e) (ii) every

(f) (iii) itself

  1. (a) (ii) who

(b) (iii) the

(c) (i) on

(d) (iv) as

(e) (ii) where

(f) (iv) the

  1. (a) (iii) most

(b) (iv) many

(c) (i) the

(d) (iii) employed

(e) (ii) which

(f) (i) unless

  1. (a) (ii) several

(b) (i) to carry

(c) (i) for

(d) (iv) made

(e) (i) that

(f) (ii) specialised

  1. (a) (ii) between

(b) (iv) what

(c) (i) while

(d) (ii) shaken

(e) (iv) should

(f) (ii) so

 

Type : 2

 

  1. (a) (ii) discussion

(b) (iii) organised

(c) (iii) actively

(d) (i) ideas

(e) (iv) examined

(f) (iii) making

  1. (a) (ii) believed

(b) (i) reason

(c) (iii) certainly

  1. (a) (ii) mystery

(b) (iv) secret

(c) (i) sorrow

(d) (iii) depressed

(e) (ii) hardly

(f) (iii) miserable

  1. (a) (ii) defined

(b) (i) harmful

(c) (i) permissible

(d) (ii) contamination

(e) (ii) consequence

(f) (i) responsibility

  1. (a) (iii) personal

(b) (i) social

(c) (ii) adjustment

(d) (iii) completely

(e) (iv) require

(f) (ii) permission

 

Type : 3

 

  1. (a) (ii) he felt then

(b) (iv) he felt slightly

(c) (iii) he had taken

  1. (a) (iii) he was going

(b) (iv) that he was going to the

(c) (i) if he might drop him

  1. (a) (iii) she had spent

(b) (iv) she had visited Kashmir

(c) (ii) it had been her first trip

  1. (a) he was

(b) he had missed his

(c) he had not left

  1. (a) made him weep.

(b) had stolen his wallet.

(c) he had kept

 

Type : 4

 

  1. (a) (iv) was hit

(b) (i) were uprooted

(c) (ii) were flooded

  1. (a) (iii) is given

(b) (i) is defeated

(c) (ii) is rewarded

  1. (a) (iv) can’t be enjoyed

(b) (iii) is relished

(c) (iii) have been frozen

  1. (a) (iii) have been left

(b) (ii) is dispelled.

(c) (i) was compensated.

 

Type :5

 

  1. (a) Music has an important place in our lives

(b) It activates our body and mind

(c) It is also regarded as a fine art

  1. (a) Urbanization has spread its tentacles every-where in India.

(b) In name of country only land remain in the villages.

(c) This has posed numerous challenges for policy makers.

  1. (a) Meditation is a form of religion or spiritual contemplation.

(b) It is the basis of most of the religions.

(c) It is detached observation processes of one’s own mind.

  1. (a) Koalas are animal that hardly drink water.

(b) They get all their water supply from the leaves they eat.

(c) Each adult Koalas can eat upto one and a half kilograms of leaves everyday.

  1. (a) Small wagtails birds are eating insects.

(b) There are about eight species of wagtails.

(c) They are closely related to pipits.

 

Type :6 Editing (Error Finding)

 

  1. (a) looked – look

(b) a – an

(c) fact – facts

(d) is – are

(e) pups – pup

(f) on – in

  1. (a) through – by

(b) him – his

(c) Anyone – Someone

(d) didn’t – don’t

(e) beneath – under

(f) their – there

  1. (a) better – best

(b) Depend – Depending

(c) or – and

(d) an – a

(e) their – there

(f) which – who

  1. (a) that – which

(b) this – these

(c) is – are

(d) do – doing

(e) because – but

(f) for – of

  1. (a) at – after

(b) inherit – inherited

(c) since – for

(d) thinks – thought

(e) should – can

(f) kept – keep

  1. (a) easiest – easier

(b) could – can

(c) of – from

(d) some where – any where

(e) from – in

(f) gadget – gadgets

 

Type :7 Editing (Omissions)

 

  1. (a) peep into the

(b) see how many

(c) time when his

(d) up and said

(e) have any problem

(f) cured my headache

  1. (a) they can retain

(b) nutrients and colour

(c) dishes with lids

(d) once during the

(e) Roasting or boiling

(f) with the ends

  1. (a) opportunity to go

(b) jump at the

(c) away from home

(d) week or two

(e) for the first

(f) miss their parents

 

  1. (a) is not diversity

(b) features but also

(c) belong to in

(d) they speak.There

(e) however still a

(f) this helps to

 

  1. (a) survive and each

(b) its own peculiar

(c) breath from lungs

(d) through their skin

(e) system in man

(f) mainly of the

  1. (a) few are ready

(b) most of the

(c) they are busy

(d) minute for exercise

(e) too much.

(f) they can get

  1. (a) man and his

(b) not a bit

(c) scolded the dogs

(d) passed his house

(e) hearing from their

(f) before him bits

  1. (a) upon it other

(b) name of Gessler

(c) window a few pairs

(d) what was ordered

(e) what he made

(f) boots which made

 

 

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