Chapter 22 Strategies for Enhancement of Food Production Part 1 by TEACHING CARE online tuition and coaching classes

Chapter 22 Strategies for Enhancement of Food Production Part 1 by TEACHING CARE online tuition and coaching classes



The rearing of animals for specific purposes is called domestication, and such animals are called domestic animals. Domestication of animals started during the ‘hunting and gathering phase’ of human civilization. Man domesticates a variety of animals for food transport agricultural operation, wool, fur, study, research and pleasure. Cow buffaloes, goats, sheep and pigs for meat and honey bee for honey. Cattles, horses, mules, donkeys, camels, elephants and reindeer are used for transport. The domesticated animals play an important role in the economy of rural India. The first animals to be domesticated may have been the dog and goat. The various breeds of domestic animals we use today have evolved from wild ancestors through selective breeding. Pets, livestock, poultry, Fishery, Sericulture, apiculture and Lac culture are briefly discussed in this chapter. The branch of agriculture specializing in the breeding raising care and utilization of domestic animals is known as animal husbandry.

 Dogs and Cats.

Dogs and cats are the closest pets of man. They are carnivores turned omnivores. They occurs wild in various parts of the world.

  • Dogs : Dog was among the earliest animals domesticated by A large number of breeds have been produced by intensive inbreeding and artificial selection of a single ancestral dog species. These vary in form colour, size and fur. It has proved to be a faithful companion and guard of its master. The domestic dog, canis familiars, is found in almost all countries. It is useful in many ways.
  • It can be trained to protect flocks (sheep or goat) and herds (cattle).
  • It is helpful in tracking and running down the game such as hare and fox.
  • It is a very useful animal for
  • Some breeds, which have sharp sense of smell and sight, are employed to trace the criminals drug peddlers and
  • It can lead the blind
  • Eskimos use dogs to pull sledges (wheel less vehicles used over snow or ice).
  • Dog raising is a profitable Pedigree dogs fetch high return.
  • Dog is a symbol of
  • Cats : Cat felis domesticus is a small, furry It has many breeds. It is domesticated to eradicated rats and mice. It is also a nice pet.


  • Meaning of livestock : The word livestock refers to the domestic animals kept or dealt in for use or It includes cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, mules, donkeys and camels. The most important of these are cattle and buffaloes.
  • Cattle (Bos indicus) Buffaloes (Bos bubalus) : The word cattle includes cow (adult female), bull (uncastrated adult male), bullock or OX (castrated adult male) and steer (young castrated male).
  • Importance of cattle and Buffaloes : Cattle and buffalo are most important forms of domesticated They are next to land in use for farmers. They are widely used for :
  • Agricultural Operations : Cattle are used in agricultural operations such as ploughing, harrowing and levelling land; in harvesting and thrashing ripe crops; and in working wells,
  • Milk : Cows and buffaloes provide milk, an important human food with all the essential
  • Transport : Cattle are employed in cart driving to transport men and materials. However, they are being fast replaced by
  • Manure and fuel : The dung provided by them acts as a valuable manure for maintaining the fertility of the It is also used for preparation of biogas or gobar gas. Dung cakes provide cheap fuel to the poor, but the fields get deprived of an important manure.




  • Leather : Hides obtained from these animals are used for the preparation of leather
  • Glue and gelatin : Their bones, horns and hoofs yield glue and
  • Meat : Beef and buffalo meat are eaten by certain people
  • Hair : Hair are used for making brushes.
  • Hybridisation : Indian bulls are used for
  • Breeds of cattle : There are 26 breeds of cattle and 7 breeds of buffaloes in India. They differ in colour, general body build, form of horns, forehead and geographical distribution. The best cattle breeds occur in the drier regions of the country. The most important breeds of milk cows in the United States of America are Holstein- Friesian, Jersey, Quernsey, Ayrshire and Brown Swiss. Depending upon the utility, the cattle are classified into the following groups;
  • Milch breeds that give good milk-producing cows,
  • Draught breeds which give good working bullocks,
  • General utility (dual-purpose) breeds the females of these breeds are good milk-producers and the bullocks are good draught

Some Breeds of Indian Cattle

Milch Breeds Distribution
1. Gir Gujrat, Rajasthan
2. Sahiwal Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
3. Red Sindhi Andhra Pradesh
4. Deoni Andhra Pradesh
Drought Breeds  
1. Malvi Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh
2. Nageri Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
3. Hallikar Karnataka
4. Kangayam Tamil Nadu and other parts of South India
General Utility Breeds  
1. Haryana Haryana, Punjab, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujrat
2. Ongole Andhra Pradesh
3. Kankrej Gujrat
4. Tharparkar Andhra Pradesh, Gujrat

Some Breeds of Indians Buffaloes

Murrah Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
Bhadawari Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
Jaffrabadi Gujrat
Surti Rajasthan, Gujrat
Mehsana Gujrat
Nagpuri or Ellichpuri Central and South India
Nili Ravi Punjab, Haryana
  • Feeding of cattle : The cattle feed consists of two components (a) Roughage (b)
  • Roughage : Roughage includes fodder, silage, hay and straw. They have a large amount of fibre contents and low nutritive
  • Consentrates : The consentrates used in the cattle feed is a mixture of substance which are rich in nutrient contents. Cotton seeds, oil seeds, oil cakes, cereal grains like bajra, gram, rice polish, etc. are some important substances included in the concentrates in the cattle In the winter season, cattle are given green fodder, mainly berseem and lucerns. In other seasons, cattle are given maize, bajra, jowar and dry fodder.

Cattle should be given sufficient water daily. Suckling calves also need water.




  • Breeding of Cattle : Cattle breeders select and mate best type of cattle for a particular purpose. The breeding of cattle is done by two methods e. natural and artificial.
  • Natural breeding : It is further of two types e. random and controlled
    • Random breeding : Here some pedigree bulls are kept along with the grazing cows. Bulls not selected for breeding are castrated and changed to
    • Controlled breeding : In this type of breeding native cows are crossed with superior quality of imported bulls in natural breeding. Foreign dairy breeds like Jersey (England), Holstein Freisian (Holland), Brown Swiss (Switzerland), Ayrshire (Scotland) have been imported to give better results. Hybrid cows yield more milk and hybrid oxen comparatively more active and energetic. Some improved hybrids are Jersey Sindhi, Brown Swiss Sahiwal, Ayrshire Sahiwal
      • Artificial breeding : The introduction of semen (sperm) in the body (vagina) of females by artificial means is called artificial insemination. This method is comparatively better and Several cows can be inseminated by semen of a single bull.
      • Superovulation and Embryo transplantation : This is a recent technique that has been introduced in India to produce super milch
    • Breeding and Calving Season : In India the breeding season commences from September and continues upto February, and the calving season from July to November. During this breeding period, the bulls have been found to be very active sexually and the quality and quantity of semen are very high, particularly during winter (November to February). The she buffaloes show the maximum of ovarian activity and the largest percentage of them conceive during this
    • Length of Gestation : The length of gestation of buffaloes varies, influenced by breed and environment, between 276 and 340 days, but on an average, it lasts for 307 days or 10 months, in contrast to the cow with an average gestation of 284 days or 9
    • Duration of lactation, Dry period and interval between calving : In milch buffaloes, the average period of lactation is 281 days, a dry period of 139 days and an interval between calving of 420 days is This means that, on the average, a buffalo cow produces a calf at 14 months intervals.
    • Important livestock diseases : Just like human beings, livestocks like cow, buffalo, etc. Suffer from various diseases. The diseases in livestock are mainly caused by the attack of micro-organisms like virus, bacteria or fungi, or by an attack of worm Some important livestock diseases are as follows.
    • Viral diseases : Foot and mouth diseases,
    • Bacterial diseases : Rinderpest, tuberculosis,
    • Fungal diseases :

  Sheep and Goats.                                                                                                                       

There are many breeds of sheep (ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus) in our country. Today sheep are raised in all parts of the world. Sheep provide us with wool, skin and mutton and goats provide us with milk, meat, skin and hair. The fine soft wool called pashmina is the underfur of Kashmir and Tibet goats. A sheep lives for about 13 years.

  • Feeding of sheep and goats : Sheep feed on green tender grass or weeds or other herbage. Goats feed on a variety of trees by browsing on the buds and foraging on a variety of plants. Oil cakes and mineral mixture are also fed to keep sheep in good
  • Breeding of sheep and Goats : To improve the quality of a sheep, cross-breeding experiments are usually For this purpose, a good quality wool yielding or mutton producing sheep is chosen and cross breed with exotic breeds like Dorset, Horn and Merino. About 19% of world goat population occurs in India. These differ in body build, colour, horn size, ear size, hair texture, etc. The wild goat, Capra hircus, of Baluchistan and shind is the ancestral stock of all the breeds of domestic goat.




Some breeds of Indian Sheep

Breed Distribution Use
1. Lohi Punjab, Rajasthan Good quality wool, milk
2. Rampur-Bushair Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh Brown coloured ficece
3. Nali Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan Superior-carpet wool
4. Bhakarwal Jammu and Kashmir Under-coat used for high quality woollen shawls
5. Deccani Karnataka Mutton, no wool
6. Nellore Maharashtra Mutton, no wool
7. Marwari Gujrat Coarse wool
8. Patanwadi Gujrat Wool for army hosiery

Important Breeds of Indian Goats

Name Distribution
1. Gaddi and Chamba Himachal Pradesh
2. Kashmiri and Pashminu Himachal pradesh, Kashmir, Tibet
3. Jamunapari Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
4. Beetal Punjab
5. Marwari Rajasthan
6. Berari Maharashtra
7. Malabari Kerala
8. Bengal Bihar, Orissa
  • Shearing of wool : The shearing of wool is essential to promote the health of sheep. The removal of hairs (wool) from the sheep is done very carefully in the mild The recommended periods for shearing of wool are winter (February- March) and rainy (August-September) seasons when rich grazing ground is available. The sheep are washed properly before the removal of hairs.

The manufacture of wool from sheep hairs is a complicated process consisting of cleaning, drying, bleaching, dyeing, spining and twisting.

  • Common diseases of sheep and goats
  • Sheeps : These include haemorrhagic septicaemia, anthrax, sheep-pox and black-quarter. The common signs of illness are high temperature, cessation of rumination, hard breathing, coughing, sneezing, diarrhoea and drooping The sheep also suffer from external and internal parasites.

Timely inoculation prevents the diseases.

  • Goats : The goats are less prone to serious diseases. They suffer from some contagious diseases such as anthrax, goat pox, pleuropneumonia and foot and mouth The general signs of illness are as in the cows. Parasitic infection is common in goats.


Pig, also called hog or swine, is an omnivorous, nonruminant, gregarious mammal of genus Sus. All breeds of pigs have descended from the European wild boar sus scrofa or a crossbreed of this and the Asiatic species, S. indicus. The care and management of pigs is called piggery.

Pigs are the most prolific breeders and quick growers among the domestic animals. A group of 10 sows (Female hog) and one boar may produce over 160 piglets in a year. Pigs are most useful domestic animals, especially of lower classes of society. They are most economical source of meat and animal fat. Pig meat, in general,




is known as pork and the meat obtained from different parts of the body have been given different names, for example bacon obtained from the back and sides and ham from the back of the thigh. Sausages are prepared by freshminced pork, free form bone and skin. The fat of pig squeezed from the body tissue is termed as lard. Lard is used as a fine cooking medium and in the manufacture of soaps lubricants, greases, candles and water proof materials. The wiry and stiff hairs obtained from the back and neck of the pigs and wild boars are known as bristles. The rough and coarse bristles are generally used for varnish work and painting brushes. The hide is used as leather and pig droppings are a good source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for agricultural fields.

  • Feeding of pigs : Indigenous pigs survive through scavenging on kitchen wastes and farm by products and human Pig keepers raise them on grass, straw roots and grains. As they can feed on human faeces, they serve as secondary host for tape worms.
  • Breeds and breeding of pigs : Pig breeding has now started on commercial The improved exotic types, number of which is insignificant is maintained mostly at all the seven Regional Pig Breeding stations of the country. Some breeds of the pigs are given in table.

Important Breeds of Pigs

Breeds Distribution
Native Pigs
1. Desi Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh
2. Ghori Manipur, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh
Exotic pigs
1. Berkshire U.K.
2. Large White Yorkshire U.K.
3. Landrace Switzerland, Denmark
  • All India Co-ordinated research project : The ICAR initiated an All India Co-ordinated research projects on pigs during the fourth five year The project started functioning early in 1971. The main objective of the projects is to develop suitable breeds using imported stock. The centres where this project is in operation are :
  1. Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnager
  2. Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara,
  3. Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Tirupathi
  4. Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya,

(vi) Diseases of Pigs : These include swine fever, foot and mouth, swine-pox, swine-plague, anthrax, tuberculosis, infectious dysentery and piglet influenza. General signs of illness are as in sheep and goats.


  • Distinguishing Features : The horses (Equus cabalus) are solid- hoofed, non-ruminant quadrupeds with long, pendant mane and tail bearing long hair all over. They are intelligent animals. They learn fast are faithful pets and can adapt to all sorts of climatic
  • Feeding : Horses are fed on oats, barley, gram and Common salt is also added to their diet. Green grass may also be given if available.
  • Breeding : If compared to other animals, horses have a low reproductive rate. Controlled natural mating in horses has been in practice in India for a long A high professional skill is required for rearing, training and medical care of race horses.




Important breeds of Indian Horses

Name Regions
1. Kathiawari Rajasthan and Gujrat
2. Marwari Rajasthan
3. Bhutia Punjab and Bhutan
4. Manipuri North-eastern mountains
5. Spiti Himachal Pradesh
6. Zanskari Ladakh


  • Distinguishing Features : Donkeys are smaller than horses but have larger head, longer pinnae and narrower Their mane is erect and tail has a tuft of hair at the tip.
  • Feeding : The donkeys mainly feed on straw and They are often let free to graze on the roadside.
  • Breeding : There are two breeds of donkeys in our country : small, dark grey and large, light grey to almost white. The grey donkey occurs in most parts of the country. The white donkey, also called wild ass, occurs in Rann of Donkeys have descended from the wild ass Equus asinus of Abyssinia.


Mule is the hybrid between male ass (jack) and female horse (mare). It has the stamina of ass and size of horse, but is sterile. Similarly, the cross between male horse (stallion) and female ass is called hinny.

Mules are known for their toughness. Since they are sexually sterile, they have to be produce every time a


  • Feeding : They are fed mainly on green fodder, crushed grams and They are also given salt.
  • Breeding : Indian army has imported male donkeys from Europe for breeding Army uses tow type

of mules : (a) General service type and (b) Mountain artillery type. The latter are firm footed and can carry heavy loads on steep terrain.

  • Common Disease of Equines : The horses, donkeys and mules suffer from many diseases. They include pink eye or influenza, strangles, tetanus, colic

 Camels .                                                                                                                                                                   The camel is a large, horn less, ruminant mammal of genus Camelus. It is popularly called “the ship of the desert” because of its great travelling power in a desert. It is a valuable beast of burden in hot desert and semidesert

regions as it can live on minimum food and water when travelling with load.

  • Types of camels : There are two types of camels :
  • Arabian camels (Camelus dromidarius) : With a single hump, short hair and found in north Africa to It does not occur in wild form.
  • Turkish or bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) : With two humps, long hair and found in Gobi desert of central It occurs in wild form also.
  • Feeding : Camels are fed on dry fodder (barley, straw) supplemented with chopped green fodder made of pulses, mustard and green pees. They browse on trees, shrubs and bushes. The size of the hump is a good indicator of its
  • Breeding : There are four kinds of camels in These are Jaisalmeri, Sindhi and Bikaneri found in Rajasthan and Kutchi found in Gujrat. They have a well-defined breeding season. Camels breed in winter (November to March).
  • Diseases : Camels suffer diseases such as anthrax, pneumonia, camel-pox and





Elephants are chiefly found in forests with tall trees where bamboo’s grow in profusion. They have very poor sight but sense of hearing and smell is highly developed.

  • Feeding : Daily food intake is considerable, but only partially digested and utilization is low. Natural food includes bamboo shoots, leaves and various fruits. Working elephant are fed straw, hay and crushed grain as a
  • Breeding : Puberty occurs at between 8 and 12 years. The gestation period is 21 – 22 months. The calving interval is 4 years. Elephants may live for up to 90-100 years. Elephants are of two types : African elephants and Indian

Differences between Indian Elephant and African Elephant

  Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) African elephant (Laxodonta africans)
1. Physical Features Small ears, High domed forehead with 2 prominance on top of skull. One process on trunk tip Convex backed. Tusks in males only, not always Large ears convex sloping forehead.
2. Mature at 25 years 25 years
3. Weight at maturity Male 3000 kg Male 6000 kg
4. Geographical distribution Ceylon, India, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia East, Central and West Africa
5. Uses Timber extraction and log moving in forested areas Very limited. In small area of Zaire, used for timber transport.


Yak is found in Tibet, Ladakh, Lahaul, Spiti, Garhwal and Sikkim. It gives meat, hide and wool. Yak is also used for tilling land. The transport of people and goods in these regions would be impossible without this animal.

Imortant Tips :

  • Super ovulation is a technique where a cow is made to ovulate more ova by injection of
  • The average yield of buffalo is 495 with 6.5 – 7.5 percent fat.
  • Breeding season for buffaloes –September to
  • Gastroenteritis is the second highest cause of buffalo calf
  • The uterine and ovarian cycle of buffalo is 21 days (variations present).
  • Kranswiss (hybrid breed of livestock) was developed at NDRI, kanal, while sunandini was developed at NDRI
  • Lindane is an insecticide used to control external parasite like lice on
  • Milk yield/cow/yr. in U.S.A. is 4250 kg. and 220 kg in India.
  • Sex vigour in buffalo increases in colder