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Daily Practice Paper DPP 5 – Fertilization & (Cleavage Part 1)

DPP 5                Topic: Fertilization & (Cleavage Part 1)               No. of Questions 126

 

  1. What helps in the penetration of egg by the sperm

(a) Fertilizin (b) Antifertilizin (c) Sperm lysin (d) Fertilization membrane

 

  1. After a sperm has penetrated an ovum in the process of fertilization, entry of further sperms is prevented by

 

(a) Development of the vitelline membrane (b) Development of the pigment coat (c) Condensation of yolk (d) Formation of fertilization membrane

  1. Sperm entry into the ovum is assisted by

 

(a) Fertilizin (b) Antifertilizin (c) Hyalunic acid (d) Hyaluronidase

  1. External stimulus which induces cleavage in an unfertilized ovum is called

 

(a) Fertilization (b) Chemotaxis (c) Paedogenesis (d) Neoteny

  1. Function of fertilizin is/are

 

(a) Makes the sperm sticky (b) Clumping of sperms (c) Makes sperm to adhere the surface of egg (d) All the above

  1. During the development, the point of entry of sperm in the eggs at fertilization

 

(a) Establishes the antereo- posterior axis (b) Forms the centre of rotation of egg (c) Forms the grey crescent (d) Forms the dorsal lip of blastopore

  1. The point of sperm entry during fertilization forms

 

(a) Centre of rotation of embryo (b) Axis of cleavage (c) Grey crescent (d) Dorsal lip of blastopore

  1. The rule of embryonic development was given by

 

(a) Von baer (b) Haeckel (c) Wallace (d) Morgan

  1. Fertilizin is a chemical substance produced from

 

(a) Mature eggs (b) Acrosome (c) Polar bodies (d) Middle piece of sperm

  1. Just after fertilization the first change is

 

(a) Formation of grey crescent (b) Activation of egg (c) Formation of receptacle cone (d) Cortical reaction

  1. Androgamones are secretions from

 

(a) Sperm (b) Ovum (c) Testes (d) Uterus masculinus

  1. Culperine is a protein present in the sperm head of

 

(a) Salmon fish (b) Birds (c) Mammals (d) Frog

  1. After the sperm entry into the egg cytoplasm rotates through

 

(a) (b) (c) (d) 180 90 75 60

  1. Antifertilizins are contained in

 

(a) Spermatozoa (b) Ovary (c) Testis (d) Germinal epithelium

  1. Gyanogamones are secretions from

 

(a) Ovum or unfertilized egg (b) Spermatids (c) Cells of Graffian follicle (d) Ovary

  1. Penetration of ovum by sperm during fertilization is done by the

 

(a) Acrosome (b) Mitochondria (c) Centrosome (d) None of the above

  1. The acrosome plays important role in

 

(a) Motility of sperm (b) Penetrations of ovum by sperm(c) Providing energy to sperm (d) None of the above

  1. In mammals the egg when released from ovary is commonly encased in a layer of cells of ovarian origin, corona radiata. These cells are held together by a cementing substance known as(a) Hyaluronidase (b) Hyaluronic acid (c) Hydrochloric acid (d) All the above
  2. Repressor theory of activation of fertilization was given by

 

(a) Heilbrunn (b) Runnstrom (c) Monray and Tyler (d) Batallion

  1. The hormones of the sperm are called

 

(a) Gynogamones-I (b) Androgamones (c) Gynogamones-II (d) None of the above

  1. In mature oocytes cortical granules are formed on which side of plasmalemma

 

(a) Outer (b) Inner (c) Upper (d) All the above

  1. The fertilization membrane during fertilization is synthesized by

 

(a) Mitochondria (b) Golgi bodies (c) Acid mucopolysaccharides of cortical granules (d) All the above

  1. Basic requirement of external fertilization is

 

(a) Delivery of large quantities of spermatozoa (b) Delivery of spermatozoa in the body of female (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of the above

  1. Movement of sperm is done by

 

(a) Tail (b) Head (c) Acrosome (d) Middle piece

  1. Chemical substance present on the surface of sperm is

 

(a) Hyalouronidase (b) Antifertilizin (c) Agglutinin (d) Fertilizin

  1. Breaking of acrosome membrane is

 

(a) Agglutination (b) Activation (c) Cavitation (d) Capacitation

  1. Onset of pregnancy

 

(a) Stimulates testosterone secretion (b) Inhibits further ovulation (c) Leads to degeneration of ovary (d) Inhibits fusion of egg and sperm nuclei

  1. Acrosome aids the sperm to

 

(a) Penetrate vitelline membrane of ovum (b) Find ovum (c) Swim (d) Higher activity

  1. At the time of fertilization

 

(a) First maturation division is completed (b) Embryo is formed (c) Second maturation division is completed (d) First polar body is formed

  1. Which chemical of the egg attracts and holds sperm

 

(a) Fertilizin (b) Antifertilizin (c) Agglutin (d) Antiagglutin

  1. Sperms produce an enzymatic substance for dissolving egg coverings. It is called

 

 (a) Hyaluronic acid (b) Hyaluronidase (c) Androgamone (d) Diastase

  1. In corona radiata, the cells are held together by

 

(a) Cytoplasmic connections (b) Cell membrane interdigitations (c) Thin layer of intercellular cement (d) Hyaluronic acid

  1. Cells of corona radiata disperse just

 

(a) After fertilization (b) Before implantation (c) At the time of coming in contact with sperm (d) After cleavage

  1. Fertilization was first discovered by

 

(a) Aristotle (b) Leeuwenhoek (c) Harvey (d) Pander

  1. Centrioles of sperm control

 

(a) Movement of tail (b) Haploid number of chromosomes (c) Help in fertilization (d) None of the above

  1. The fertilization membrane is secreted because

 

(a) It checks the entry of more sperms after fertilization (b) It checks the entry of antigens in ovum (c) It represents the left out tail of sperm (d) It represents the plasma membrane of sperm

  1. Site of fertilization in a mammal is (a) Ovary (b) Uterus (c) Vagina (d) Fallopian tube
  2. Hyaluronidase is present in

 

(a) Ovary (b) Ovum (c) Sperm (d) Blood

  1. Fertilization occurs in humans in

 

(a) Ovary (b) Fallopian tube (c) Vasa deferentia (d) Outside the body

  1. Fertilization is fusion of

(a) Diploid spermatozoan with diploid ovum to form diploid zygote

(b) Haploid spermatozoan with diploid ovum to form diploid zygote

(c) Diploid spermatozoan with haploid ovum to form diploid zygote

 

(d) Haploid spermatozoan with haploid ovum to form diploid zygote.

  1. Part of sperm involved in penetrating egg membrane is

 

(a) Tail (b) Acrosome (c) Allosome (d) Autosome

  1. Mobility of mature sperm is controlled by mitochondria present in

 

(a) Head (b) Middle piece (c) Tail (d) All the above

  1. Ovum receives the sperm in the region of

 

(a) Animal pole (b) Vegetal pole (c) Equator (d) Pigmented area

  1. Enzyme secreted by sperm is

 

(a) Sperm trypsin (b) Sperm lysin (c) Male hormone (d) Sperm gastrin

  1. A crosomal reaction occurs during

 

(a) Copulation (b) Puberty (c) Menopause (d) Fertilization

  1. Maturation of sperm before penetration of ovum is called

 

(a) Capacitation (b) Spermatid (c) Ovulation (d) None of the above

  1. Through which part of egg, the sperm enters

 

(a) Micropyle (b) Animal pole (c) Megapyle (d) Vegetal pole

  1. Polyspermy refers to

 

(a) Changes in sperm nucleus (b) Formation of many sperms (c) Penetration of many sperms into an ovum simultaneously (d) None of the above

  1. Following are some stages in the embryonic development

 

(1) Organ formation (2) Blastulation (3) Gametogenesis (4) Gastrulation (5) Fertitization Correct developmental sequence is (a) 5, 3, 2, 4, 1 (b) 3, 5, 2, 4, 1 (c) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (d) 5, 4, 3, 2, 1

  1. The region where sperm enters the egg is called

 

(a) Equator (b) Reception cone (c) Micropyle (d) Vegetal pole

  1. The main significance of fertilization is to

 

(a) Restore chromosome number (b) Double chromosome number (c) Reduce chromosome number (d) None of the above

  1. Grey-crescent is an area formed soon after fertilization in

 

(a) Zygote of all animals (b) Zygote of non chordates (c) Zygote of vertebrates (d) Blastula of vertebrates

  1. Motion of sperm is

 

(a) Chemotaxis (b) Rheotaxis (c) Hydrotropism (d) Random

  1. Corticle granules composed of

 

(a) Albumin (b) Keratin (c) Mucopolysaccharide (d) Melanin

  1. Hyaluronic acid which binds corona radiata cells is a

 

(a) Hommopoly saccharide (b) Amino acid (c) Mucopoly saccharide (d) Glyco protein

  1. Polyspermy is of common occurrence in

(a) Frog (b) Man (c) Birds (d) Sea-urchin

  1. The life history of an organism completed in the egg or in womb of the mother is called

 

(a) Post natal development (b) Pre-natal development (c) Antogenetic development (d) All the above

  1. Conjoint twins are those which

 

(a) Develop from same zygote (b) Develop from two different zygotes (c) Are wholly or partly fused (d) Are fused by placenta

  1. Which statement is correct for fertilization

 

(a) Restore euploidy (b) Brings male & female gametes together (c) Entry of whole sperm in egg (d) All of these

  1. Who demonstrated the acrosome reaction in

 

(a) F.R. Lillie (1919) (b) Colwin and Colwin (1967) (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of the above

  1. Cortical granules on swelling and exploding release

 

(a) Lamellar and folded parts (b) Globules (c) Liquid material (d) All the above

  1. Cortical granules are absent in

 

(a) Bony fishes (b) Frog (c) Mammals (d) Rat and guinea pig

  1. Sperm nucleus follows which path for fertilization

 

(a) Sperm path (b) Copulation path (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of the above

  1. Which of the following statement is not correct

(a) Fertilizin of one species of animal will react with antifertilizin of another species

(b) Fertilizin of one species of animal will react with antifertilizin of the same species

(c) Fertilizin is a glycoprotein and antifertilizins are acidic proteins

 

(d) Molecular weight of fertilizin is about 3, 00, 000 and antifertilizin 10,000

  1. The plasma membrane of oocyte and that of follicle cells show close connections at some points in the form of

 

(a) Microvilli (b) Desmosomes (c) Cytoplasmic processes (d) None of the above

  1. Function of gynogamone-I is

(a) Conserves sperm activity

 

(b) Dissolves vitelline membrane (c) Neutralizes androgamone-I thereby increasing sperm activity (d) Makes sperm head sticky to facilitate attachment of sperm to egg surface

  1. Sperm of animal species cannot fertilize ovum of species because

(a) Fertilizin of and are not compatible (b) Antifertizin of and are not compatible

 

(c) Fertilizin of and antifertilizin of are not compatible (d) Antifertilizin of and fertilizin of are not compatible

  1. First step in activation of ovum during process of fertilization is

 

(a) Formation of fertilization membrane (b) Fertilizin-antiferilizin reaction (c) Penetration of sperm in ovum (d) Formation of fertilization cone

  1. Cortical granules are associated with

 

(a) Oogenesis (b) Spermatogenesis (c) Cleavage (d) Fertilization

  1. Acrosome reaction in sperm is triggered by

 

(a) Capacitation (b) Release of lysin (c) Influx of (d) Release of fertilizin +

  1. On fertilization of egg nucleus with sperm nucleus

 

(a) Second maturation is completed (b) Embryo is formed (c) First polar body is formed (d) First maturation is completed

  1. What is true about the process of fertilization

(a) Only acrosome of sperm enters the egg

(b) Two haploid nuclei fuse but the fusion nucleus divides immediately to form two haploid nuclei

(c) Entry of sperm activates the egg to complete meiosis-I

(d) Only one sperm enters in egg

  1. The rate of active movement of sperms is

 

(a) 1.5-3. 0 cm/min. (b) 1.5-3. 0 mm/min (c) 1.5 –3. 0 m/min (d) 1.5-3.0 m/hr

  1. Enzyme hyaluronidase is synthesised in

 

(a) Head of sperm (b) Golgi bodies of acrosome (c) Lysosome of acrosome (d) Tail of sperm

  1. During fertilization of frog egg, cortical reaction occurs

 

(a) Before the penetration of sperm (b) After the fusion of the two nuclei (c) Soon after the penetration of sperm (d) At the time of contact of sperm with egg

  1. Drugs that cause malformation in embroyo during pregnancy are called

 

(a) Nicotin (b) Sedatives (c) Teratogens (d) Tranquillizer

  1. Non-participation of male pronucleus in fertilization is

 

(a) Polygyny (b) Polyandry (c) Androgenesis (d) Gynogenesis

  1. The function of bind (a protein) in the acrosomal process is to

(a) Prevent more than one sperm entering in to the egg

 

(b) Digest the vitelline layer (c) Ensure that the egg is being fertilized by a sperm of the same species (d) Severe the sperm’s tail

  1. The slow block to polyspermy develops in response to the

 

(a) Opening of sodium gates in the plasma membrane (b) Release of bindin (c) Spreading of the fertilization cone around egg (d) Formation of fertilization membrane

  1. After fertilization, the vitelline membrane gets separated from the plasma membrane. This is

 

(a) To prevent polyspermy (b) Facilitate cleavage (c) To maintain osmotic tension (d) For free cell movement during gastrulation

  1. Antifertilizin is

 

(a) Glycoprotein (b) Acidic protein (c) Carbohydrate (d) None of the above

  1. Type of fertilization (external or internal) depends on

 

(a) Structure of egg (b) Site of embryo developement (c) Type of sperm (d) Both (a) and (b)

  1. Androgamone-I

 

(a) Inhibits sperm activity (b) Stimulates sperm activity (c) Stimulates ovum (d) Both (a) and (b)                                                                                                

 

Cleavage Part 1

  1. Unit cell of blastula is

 

(a) Micromere (b) Megamere (c) Blastomere (d) None of the above

  1. In an egg, the type of cleavage is determined by the

 

(a) Shape and size of the sperm (b) Size and location of the nucleus (c) Amount and distribution of yolk (d) Number of egg membranes

  1. How many cleavages occur for the formation of 32 cells

 

(a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 6

  1. The cleavage having incomplete division of egg is known as

 

(a) Holoblastic (b) Meroblastic (c) Meridional (d) Spiral

  1. Blastula lacks

(a) Blastomeres (b) Blastoderm (c) Blastocoel (d) Blastopore

  1. In spiral cleavage turn of spiral may be

 

(a) Clockwise (b) Anticlockwise (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of the above

  1. Blastocyst is a modified blastula of

 

(a) Placental mammals (b) Frog (c) Fish (d) Birds

  1. Cleavage in bird’s egg is

 

(a) Equal and holoblastic (b) Unequal and holoblastic (c) Discoidal meroblastic (d) Superficial meroblastic

  1. The blastula of prototherians is called

 

(a) Blastocyst (b) Stereoblastula (c) Coeloblastula (d) Discoblastula

  1. In frog equal holoblastic cleavage does not found due to

 

(a) A dark pigment in animal pole (b) Heavy yolk in vegetal pole (c) Yolk concentrated in center of egg (d) Nucleus is assymetrical in position

  1. Spiral cleavage is found in

 

(a) Synapta (b) Amphibia (c) Nematoda, annelida and rotifera etc (d) None of the above

  1. In teleosts fish, reptiles and birds the cleavage pattern is

 

(a) Equal holoblastic (b) Unequal holoblastic (c) Incomplete meroblastic (d) Complete meroblastic

  1. Cleavage is followed by which stage

 

(a) Invagination (b) Evagination (c) Gastrula (d) Blastula

  1. Meroblastic cleavage is

 

(a) Partial cleavage (b) Spiral cleavage (c) Equal cleavage (d) Complete cleavage

  1. The third phase in the development of a mammal is

 

(a) Cleavage (b) Gastrulation (c) Gametogenesis (d) Fertilization

  1. Which distinguishes a morula from a blastula

 

(a) Presence of more yolk (b) Absence of yolk (c) Presence of a cavity (d) Absence of a cavity

  1. If the first cleavage furrow divides the zygote completely into two, the cleavage type is

 

(a) Radial (b) Equatorial (c) Meroblastic (d) Holoblastic

  1. In which stage is blastocoel formed

 

(a) Morula (b) Blastula (c) Gastrula (d) None of the above

  1. Type of cleavage in fertilized egg depends on

 

(a) Amount of yolk (b) Number of cells (c) Number of mitochondria in the sperm (d) Number of testes

  1. What is true about cells during cleavage

 

(a) They move from animal pole to vegetal pole (b) They do not grow in size (c) They consume little (d) Their divisions resemble ordinary mitosis 2

  1. Cleavage divisions differ form normal mitotic divisions in that

 

(a) There is no nuclear division during cleavage (b) There is no division of the cytoplasm during cleavage (c) There is no period of growth in between the divisions (d) The division of the cytoplasm follows nuclear divisions

  1. When the cleavage furrow extends from animal pole is vegetal pole and does not bisects the egg equally into two blastomeres the plane of cleavage is

 

(a) Meridional (b) Equatorial (c) Latitudinal (d) Vertical

  1. The cleavage is such method of divisions of fertilized egg in which the egg

 

(a) Does not divide but only increase in size (b) Divides repeatedly but without growth (c) Divides repeatedly and grows (d) None of the above

  1. How many cleavages are completed in16 celled stage of egg (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 8 (d) 12
  2. The blastula in mammals is referred as

 

(a) Blastoderm (b) Blastodisc (c) Blastocyst (d) Coeloblastula

  1. Type of cleavage found in mammals is

 

(a) Holoblastic (b) Meroblastic (c) Superficial (d) None of the above

  1. If the nuclei from an 8-celled stage of an embryo are transplanted into enucleated eggs, which of the following events is likely to occur

 (a) Formation of viable embryo in the recipient eggs (b) Donor nuclei die in the new environment (c) Cleavage occurs but is arrested after some time (d) Recipient egg dies

  1. Cleavage is found in

(a) Zygote (b) Eggs (c) Undivided cell (d) After gastrula stage

  1. The superficial blastula is the characteristic of

 

(a) Birds (b) Reptiles (c) Insects (d) Annelids

  1. Spiral cleavage is found in

(a) Coelenterata (b) Annelids (c) Echinodermata (d) Mollusca

  1. Meroblastic cleavage takes place in

(a) Hydra (b) Amphioxus (c) Frog (d) Chick

  1. During cleavage, what is true about cells

(a) Nucleocytoplasmic ratio remains unchanged (b) Size does not increase (c) There is less consumption of oxygen (d) The division is like meiosis

  1. Determinate cleavage is found in

(a) Sponges (b) Coelenterates (c) Annelids (d) Nematodes

  1. Coeloblastula is found in

(a) Labeo (b) Snakes (c) Star fish (d) Unio

  1. The discoblastula is found in

(a) Echidna (b) Man (c) Branchiostoma (d) Rana

  1. In some eggs the future organs can be demarcated as to the regions even before the beginning of cleavage. It is

(a) Regulated development (b) Mosaic development (c) Gynogenesis (d) Determined development

  1. Amount of yolk and its distribution are changed in the egg. Which one is affected

(a) Pattern of cleavage (b) Formation of zygote (c) Number of blastomeres (d) Fertilization

  1. In centrolecithal eggs, the cleavage is

(a) Equal holoblastic (b) Unequal holoblastic (c) Meroblastic discoidal (d) Meroblastic superficial

  1. Total cleavage is possible in eggs

 

(a) Isolecithal (b) Mesolecithal (c) Megalecithal (d) Telolecithal

  1. In insect egg, cleavage is

(a) Equal holoblastic (b) Unequal holoblastic (c) Meroblastic superficial (d) Meroblastic discoidal

  1. Point of sperm entry forms

 

(a) Axis of cleavage (b) Grey crescent (c) Dorsal lip of blastopore (d) Centre of embryo rotation

  1. Type of cleavage that occurs in human zygote is

 

(a) Holoblastic and equal (b) Holoblastic and unequal (c) Meroblastic discoidal (d) Meroblastic superficial

  1. If an unfertilized egg is pricked with a microneedle it will

 

(a) Die immediately (b) Start dividing (c) Remain undivided (d) None of the above

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